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Hotunan Tarihi na Shahararriyar Mawaƙin Otal ɗin Amurka

Hoton S.Turkel
Written by Linda S. Hohnholz

A cikin farkon 1920s, Edward Hopper ya samar da zane-zane da rufaffiyar batutuwan Tavern, Waldorf Astoria ya buga kuma ya rarraba. hotel a New York, kuma a cikin 1924 da 1925, ya zana rufin asiri goma sha takwas masu haske don mujallar kasuwanci Hotel Management.

Wannan mawaƙin Ba'amurke, Edward Hopper, an san shi da sha'awar otal-otal, otal-otal, gidajen yawon buɗe ido, da fa'idar hidimar baƙi. Daga 1920 zuwa 1925 ya yi aiki a matsayin mai ba da hoto na kasuwanci don Gudanar da otal da Batutuwan Tavern daga Babban Bacin rai ta hanyar Yakin Cold. Ya ƙara iliminsa na hidimar baƙi a matsayin baƙo mai yawa a masauki da yawa a kan tafiye-tafiyen mota mai nisa da ya yi tare da matarsa, mai zane Josephine Hopper. Tun daga tsakiyar shekarun 1920 zuwa farkon shekarun 1960, Hopper ya binciko batutuwan hidimar baƙi a cikin zane-zane, launukan ruwa, zane-zane, da kwafi. Wani lokaci yakan sanya wa waɗannan ayyukan suna a matsayin "hotel" ko "motel," amma kamar sau da yawa bai yi ba. Fiye da rabin rukunin shafuka ne, ba tare da ƙaramin ƙirƙira da lasisin fasaha ba.

Edward da Jo sun rayu da yawa a rayuwarsu a Manhattan, wanda, kamar sauran yankuna a duk faɗin ƙasar, sun sami gagarumin bunƙasa ginin otal a farkon kwata na ƙarni na ashirin. Kudaden shiga otal-otal ya faɗi da fiye da kashi 25 cikin ɗari a cikin ɓacin rai na 1929 zuwa 1935, wanda ba shi da wahala a hana Hopper.

Tsakanin Yaƙe-yaƙe na Duniya, Hopper ya samar da aƙalla zane-zane biyu da zane-zane guda biyar waɗanda ke haɗa abubuwan gine-gine na otal-otal na birane daban-daban-wasu daga cikinsu ya san su daga zama a New York, yayin da wasu suka koma ga hotunan da aka nuna a cikin shafukan Gudanar da otal a cikin shekarun da ya yi. samar da murfinsa. Ga mafi yawancin, murfin yana nuna kyawawa ma'aurata suna rawa, cin abinci da jirgin ruwa a cikin yanayin otal.

Da yake duban gidansu a 3 Washington Square North a New York, da Hoppers sun ci karo da gine-ginen haya da yawa, gami da kampanile mai hawa goma a 53 Washington Square South. McKim, Mead & White ne suka tsara kuma an gina shi a cikin 1893, wannan hakika wani ɓangare ne na Otal ɗin Judson, abin da aka samu daga abin da aka samu ya amfana da Cocin Judson Memorial Church na gaba. Hopper ya ɗauki wannan ra'ayi a cikin zanen Nuwamba, Washington Square, wanda ya fara a cikin 1932 kuma ya ƙara kayan aikin sama a cikin 1959. Abokin Hoppers, mai zane John Sloan, ya zauna a Otal ɗin Judson na tsawon shekaru takwas, har sai da aka kore shi daga gidan. Jami'ar New York (wanda a baya ya haɗa kayan). Ginin mai hawa uku, ƙonawa na orange a hagu mai nisa a cikin fentin fentin shi ne Gidan Gidan Gidan Gida, a 61 Washington Square South, wanda, a lokuta daban-daban daga 1910 zuwa 1930s, masu zane-zane, marubuta, mawaƙa, da mawaƙa. ciki har da Theodore Dreiser, John Dos Passos, Eugene O'Neill, da Alan Seeger.

Otal-otal ɗin daki suna cikin tsarin da aka kwatanta a cikin nau'ikan gine-ginen Hopper waɗanda aka haɗa cikin zaɓaɓɓun abubuwan ƙirƙira kamar Gidan a Magariba. Shahararrun, gidajen zama na birni suna ba da hayar ɗan gajeren lokaci, waɗannan gidaje ne da gaske amma tare da abubuwan more rayuwa na otal. Waɗannan wurare na tsaka-tsaki suna ƙunshe da raka'a da yawa tare da ɗakunan wanka guda ɗaya kuma galibi suna ƙunshe da ɗakunan zama tare da pianos kuma suna ba da gidan abinci, ɗan ƙofa, da sabis na kuyanga na yau da kullun.

Sakamakon aƙalla zane-zane na nazari guda tara, Hotel Lobby, tabbas shine mafi cikakkiyar kulawar Hopper na jigon sabis ɗin baƙi.

Zaune take akan kujera mai lullube, wata budurwa sanye da shudin kaya tana karanta littafinta, kishingid'e a kusurwoyi masu kamanta na takwararta da ta fi girma a falon. A bangon baya, kallo ta cikin labule masu duhu a cikin buɗaɗɗen ƙofa yana nuna gidan abinci tare da teburan lulluɓe na lilin. Layukan da aka kafa a ƙasa suna nuna ƙa'idodin ƙira na lokaci da ke kula da kafet a matsayin hanyar jagorantar taron jama'a da tantance wurin sanya kayan daki. Ko da mafi mahimmanci ga taron jama'a da kula da yanayi shine ƙofa mai jujjuyawa - an yanke shi a hagu a Lobby Hotel. Ga duk hotunan gine-ginen birane na Hopper, kofofin juyawa suna bayyana a cikin biyu kawai na karatun wannan aikin kuma a cikin wani zane guda ɗaya kawai (hasken rana a cikin Cafeteria, 1958, a cikin Gallery na Jami'ar Yale). Bambance-bambancen kofa mai jujjuyawa ya wanzu tun aƙalla tsakiyar karni na sha tara tare da ƙoƙarin daidaita iskar iska da kiyaye yanayin zafi a wuraren jama'a. Bai ƙyale iska ta shiga daga waje ba, kofa mai juyawa ta kasance, a cikin kalmomin wani mai tallata farko, “kullum a rufe.” Wannan yana taimakawa wajen bayyana yadda Hotel Lobby, zanen da aka gama a watan Janairu na 1943, da kuma nuna ma'aurata a cikin tufafin hunturu, kuma zai iya nuna mace maras gashi a cikin gajeren rigar hannu.

Yawancin sanannun murfin Hopper HM 18 an yi su a tsakiyar 1920s. Mafi yawan ɓangaren, murfin yana nuna ɗaya ko fiye da kyawawan ma'aurata suna jin daɗin wani abu kamar rawa, cin abinci da kuma jirgin ruwa da aka saita akan asalin otal da aka ƙirƙira. Hopper ya yi amfani da ainihin otal-Otal ɗin Cincinnatian na Ohio da Gidan Mohonk Mountain na New York-a matsayin wahayi akan biyu daga cikin murfin. Launuka masu haske na zane-zane da ayyuka masu kuzari sun bambanta daga manyan ayyukan Hopper na musamman, irin su "Automat" ko guntun "Nighthawks". Masu Hoppers, Edward da Josephine [kuma mai zane], suna cin abincin rana kowace rana a The Hotel Dixie a New York.

Kuma watakila shayar da tunanin karimci cewa komai game da kwarewar baƙo ne, VMFA ta tafi mataki ɗaya a gaba, tana sake fasalin ɗakin otal da aka gani a cikin aikin Hopper na 1957 "Western Hotel."

Edward da Jo sun fara hayar gidajen rani a Kudancin Truro akan Cape Cod a cikin 1930 kuma za su sayi kadara sannan su gina gida a can bayan 'yan shekaru. A cikin shekarun 1940s, Cape Cod ta mallaki gidaje masu yawon bude ido da yawa - gidaje guda ɗaya da aka tanada waɗanda ke ba da ɗakuna na ɗan gajeren lokaci, sau da yawa a yanayi. Mai sha'awar gine-ginen cikin gida, Hopper ya zana gidaje masu yawon bude ido da yawa a tsawon aikinsa, amma yana ganin ya kasance yana sha'awar daya daga cikin irin wannan mazaunin a lardin Cape Cod. Ya shafe tsawon dare da yawa yana fakin a gaban ginin, yana yin zane-zane, wanda ya haifar da zanen da ke ba da ra'ayi a cikin dakunan gaba na gidan - a fili, mazaunan suna mamakin abin da mai zane yake yi, yana zaune a can a cikin zanen Buick.

Masu Hoppers sun dauki dogon lokaci na tafiye-tafiye na hanya don neman batutuwa a fadin New England, West, da Mexico, a tsakanin sauran yankuna. A kan waɗannan jaunts, sun zauna a gidajen yawon buɗe ido kuma, a ƙarshe, yayin da kuɗin shiga Edward ya karu, a cikin motels da kotunan mota. Rundunan Diaris-suna rufe tsakiyar 1930s zuwa shekarun 1960, kuma kwanan nan ba a ba da kwatancin kwatancen waɗannan lodgings da ma'aurata game da su ba. Ɗaya daga cikin mafi launi da tsayin waɗannan shigarwar ya tattauna zaman su a Kotun Motar Weseman a El Paso daga Disamba 15 zuwa Disamba 22, 1952. Hopper ya zana Western Motel a lokacin zumunci a Huntington Hartford Foundation a Pacific Palisades, California, amma Canvas kuma yana haifar da kwatancen Jo na yau da kullun na tattaunawa game da masauki a El Paso.

'Yan Hoppers sun yi doguwar tafiya biyar zuwa Mexico tsakanin 1943 zuwa 1955, inda suka kuma ziyarci yankuna da dama a Amurka; sun yi tafiya ta jirgin kasa a 1943, amma a kan sauran jaunt sun yi tafiya da mota. Sau da yawa suna ƙara girman yanki bisa ga ingancin masaukinsu da ra'ayin ɗakin su da kuma daga rufin ginin. Yawancin abin da muka sani game da lokacin Hopper a Mexico ya fito ne daga wasiƙun ma'aurata a kan otal da otal ɗin otal da katunan wasiƙa. Dating daga tafiyarsa ta farko zuwa Meziko, Saltillo Rooftops ya ba da fam ɗin murhu na rufin otal ɗinsa a Gidan Guarhado (inda shi da Jo suka zauna) a gaba don daidaita tazarar tsaunukan Saliyo Madre a baya. A cikin Monterrey Cathedral, ya koma aikinsa na yin amfani da masaukinsa (a wannan yanayin Hotel Monterrey) a matsayin na'ura mai ƙira don haɗa kayan gani na otal-otal da sauran gine-gine - alamar da aka yanke na Hotel Bermuda ya bayyana a ƙasan hagu. Otal-otal da otal-otal na iya ba da misali mai amfani don fahimtar yawancin ayyukan Hopper gabaɗaya. Ya ɗauka cewa otal-otal da zane-zane suna ba da gogewa na wucin gadi, suna hidima ga mutane da yawa, kuma, a ƙarshe, ƙirƙira ce ta yaudara. Hopper ya kalli fasaharsa - zane-zanensa da launin ruwa musamman - a matsayin wuraren da za a saka hannun jari na ɗan lokaci kuma akan abin da za a yi amfani da su daga baya tare da daidaiton sassa da ƙima. Sittin da tara daga cikin waɗannan zane-zane, launukan ruwa, zane-zane, kwafi, da murfin mujallu an nuna su-tare da ayyuka talatin da biyar akan jigo na wasu masu fasaha-a cikin nunin Edward Hopper da Otal ɗin Amurka a Gidan Tarihi na Fine Arts na Virginia a Richmond. .

Wataƙila ya dace cewa baje kolin an shirya shi kuma ya fara halarta a can. Hoppers sun ziyarci Richmond a lokuta da yawa. Za a nuna nasa fasahar a nune-nunen nune-nunen shekaru biyu na gaba. Hopper ya koma gidan kayan gargajiya a 1953 don nunin alkali na Jury, a daidai lokacin da gidan kayan gargajiya ya sayi House a Dusk. Hoto daga wannan ziyarar ya nuna Hopper da mai zane na Richmond Bell Worsham suna tsaye a gaban zanen Hopper Farkon Lahadi da safe. Biyan wasu hanyoyin sadarwa mai kuzari, ta wurin masaukin ma'auratan a wannan ziyarar, darektan gidan kayan gargajiya, Leslie Cheek Jr., ta tabbatar wa Hopper, “Yayin da a Richmond za a raba ku a Otal din Jefferson, tsarin Beaux-Arts na yi imani za ku ji daɗi. .” Akwai da yawa otal-otal waɗanda kunci zai iya sanya Hopper, amma ya tabbatar da cewa mai zanen yana zaune a wurin da aka sani da "mafi kyau a Kudu."

Ayyukan Hopper na Gudanar da Otal ya yi tasiri sosai a aikinsa. Abubuwan da ya yi na Gudanar da Otal-har ma da wasu hotuna da tallace-tallace da labarai- sun samar da ɗakunan ajiya na hotuna da ra'ayoyin da zai sake komawa akai-akai.

Stanley Turkel ne adam wata An sanya shi a matsayin Tarihin Tarihi na shekara ta 2020 ta Tarihi na Tarihi na Tarihi, shirin hukuma na National Trust for Adana Tarihi, wanda a baya aka sanya masa suna a cikin 2015 da 2014. Turkel shi ne mashawarcin mashawarcin otal otal da aka fi yaduwa a Amurka. Yana aiki da aikin tuntuɓar otal ɗin da yake aiki a matsayin ƙwararren mashaidi a cikin al'amuran da suka shafi otal, yana ba da kula da kadara da shawarwarin ikon mallakar otal. An tabbatar dashi a matsayin Babban Mai Ba da Otal din Otal daga Cibiyar Ilimi ta Hotelasar Amurkan Hotel da Lodging Association. [email kariya] 917-628-8549

Sabon littafinsa mai suna "Great American Hotel Architects Volume 2" an buga shi.

Sauran Littattafan Otal da Aka Buga:

• Manyan otal -otal na Amurka: Majagaba na Masana'antar otal (2009)

• An Gina Don Ƙarshe: Otal-otal sama da 100 a New York (2011)

• An Gina Don Ƙarshe: Otal-otal 100+ Gabas na Mississippi (2013)

• Hotel Mavens: Lucius M. Boomer, George C. Boldt, Oscar na Waldorf (2014)

• Manyan otal -otal na Amurka Juzu'i na 2: Majagaba na Masana'antar otal (2016)

• An Gina Don Ƙarshe: Otal-otal 100+ Yammacin Mississippi (2017)

• Hotel Mavens Volume 2: Henry Morrison Flagler, Henry Bradley Shuka, Carl Graham Fisher (2018)

• Babban American Hotel Architects Volume I (2019)

• Hotel Mavens: Volume 3: Bob da Larry Tisch, Ralph Hitz, Cesar Ritz, Curt Strand

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Linda S. Hohnholz

Linda Hohnholz ta kasance babban edita don eTurboNews tsawon shekaru.
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