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Hukumar yawon shakatawa ta Afirka Kasa | Yanki Labaran Gwamnati Labarai mutane Afirka ta Kudu trending

Wanene Archbishop Desmond Tutu? Bari "Arch" ya huta lafiya

"Fata yana iya ganin cewa akwai haske duk da duhu".

Archbishop Desmond Tutu ya fadi wadannan kalmomi. Ya mutu yana da shekaru 90, wannan katafaren dan adam ya kafa yanayin sabuwar Afirka ta Kudu. Wanene shi?

Wanda ya lashe kyautar zaman lafiya ta Nobel kuma tsohon Archbishop Desmond Tutu Wanda aka fi sani da "Arch" ya mutu yana da shekaru 90 a CapeTown, Afirka ta Kudu a yau.

Desmond Tutu ya tsara manufarsa a matsayin "al'umma ta dimokiradiyya da adalci ba tare da rarrabuwar kabilanci ba", kuma ya gabatar da abubuwa masu zuwa a matsayin mafi ƙarancin buƙatu:

Bayanin Hukumar Yawon shakatawa na Afirka:

Dr. Walter Mzembi, mamban hukumar gudanarwar Hukumar yawon shakatawa ta Afirka A cikin wata sanarwa da ya fitar ya ce: “Ya kasance fitaccen dan gwagwarmayar ‘yanci na coci-coci da yakar wariyar launin fata. Shugaban kwamitin gaskiya da sulhu kuma tabbas muryar lamiri a rayuwarsa.

1. Daidaita hakkin jama'a ga kowa
2. soke dokokin fasfo na Afirka ta Kudu
3. tsarin ilimi na kowa
4. Dakatar da korar tilas daga Afirka ta Kudu zuwa abin da ake kira "kasashen gida"

An haifi Tutu a Klerksdorp a ranar 7 ga Oktoba 1931. Mahaifinsa, Zachariah, wanda ya yi karatu a makarantar Mishan, shi ne shugaban makarantar sakandare a Klerksdorp, wani karamin gari a Yammacin Transvaal (yanzu Lardin Arewa maso Yamma). Mahaifiyarsa, Aletha Matlhare, ma'aikaciyar gida ce. Sun haifi 'ya'ya hudu, mata uku da namiji. Wannan wani lokaci ne a tarihin Afirka ta Kudu wanda ya riga ya fara wariyar launin fata amma duk da haka an ayyana shi ta hanyar wariyar launin fata.

Tutu yana da shekaru takwas lokacin da aka canza mahaifinsa zuwa makarantar da ke kula da yaran Afirka, Indiyawa da masu launi a Ventersdorp. Ya kuma kasance almajiri a wannan makaranta, ya taso a muhallin da ake samun yara daga wasu al’umma. An yi masa baftisma a matsayin Methodist amma a Ventersdorp ne iyalin suka bi 'yar uwarsa, jagorar Sylvia zuwa Cocin Methodical Episcopal na Afirka kuma a ƙarshe a cikin 1943 dukan iyalin sun zama Anglicans.

Daga nan sai aka mayar da Zachariah Tutu zuwa Roodepoort, a tsohuwar Transvaal ta Yamma. A nan an tilasta wa dangin zama a cikin rumfa yayin da mahaifiyarsa ke aiki a Makarantar Makafi ta Ezenzeleni. A cikin 1943, an tilasta dangi sake ƙaura sau ɗaya, wannan lokacin zuwa Munsieville, mazaunin Baƙar fata a Krugersdorp. Matashin Tutu ya kasance yana zuwa gidajen White House don ba da sabis na wanki inda zai tattara ya kai kayan kuma mahaifiyarsa ta wanke su. Don samun ƙarin kuɗin aljihu, tare da abokinsa, zai yi tafiya mil uku zuwa kasuwa don sayan lemu, wanda zai sayar da ɗan riba. Daga baya ya kuma sayar da gyada a tashoshin jirgin kasa kuma ya yi wasa a filin wasan golf a Killarney. A cikin wannan shekarun, Tutu shima ya shiga ƙungiyar Scouting kuma ya sami lambar Tender Foot, Daraja na Biyu da Ƙwarewa wajen dafa abinci.

A 1945, ya fara karatunsa na sakandare a Western High, makarantar sakandaren gwamnati a tsohuwar garin Western Township, kusa. Sophiatown. A daidai wannan lokacin ya shafe sama da shekara guda yana kwance a asibiti yana fama da cutar tarin fuka. A nan ne aka yi abota da shi Uba Trevor Huddleston. Uba Huddleston ya kawo masa littattafai don karantawa kuma zumunci mai zurfi ya haɓaka tsakanin su biyun. Daga baya, Tutu ya zama uwar garken a cocin Ikklesiya ta Uba Huddleston a Munsieville, har ma da horar da wasu yara maza su zama sabobin. Baya ga Uba Huddleston, Tutu ya rinjayi irin su Fasto Makhene da Uba Sekgaphane (wanda ya shigar da shi Cocin Anglican), da Reverend Arthur Blaxall da matarsa ​​a Ventersdorp.

Duk da cewa ya fadi a baya a makaranta, saboda rashin lafiyar da yake fama da ita, shugaban makarantarsa ​​ya tausaya masa, ya bar shi ya shiga aji na Matriculation. A karshen shekara ta 1950, ya ci jarrabawar hadin gwiwa ta Hukumar Matriculation, inda ya yi karatu cikin dare ta hasken kyandir. An karɓi Tutu don yin karatu a Makarantar Kiwon Lafiya ta Witwatersrand amma ya kasa samun bursary. Da haka ya tsai da shawarar ya bi misalin mahaifinsa kuma ya zama malami. A shekarar 1951, ya shiga Kwalejin Bantu Normal College, da ke wajen Pretoria, don yin karatun difloma na malami.

A cikin 1954, Tutu ya kammala karatun difloma na koyarwa daga Kwalejin al'ada ta Bantu kuma ya koyar a tsohuwar makarantarsa, Madipane High a Krugersdorp. A 1955, ya kuma sami digiri na farko a fannin fasaha daga Jami'ar Afirka ta Kudu (UNISA). Daya daga cikin wadanda suka taimaka masa da karatunsa na Jami’a shi ne Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe, shugaban farko na Pan Africanist Congress (PAC).

A ranar 2 ga Yuli 1955, Tutu ya auri Nomalizo Leah Shenxane, ɗaya daga cikin ƙwararrun ɗaliban mahaifinsa. Bayan aurensu, Tutu ya fara koyarwa a makarantar sakandare ta Munsieville, inda mahaifinsa ya kasance shugaban makarantar, kuma ana tunawa da shi a matsayin malami mai ban sha'awa. A ranar 31 ga Maris, 1953, malamai na bakaken fata da kuma dalibai sun fuskanci mummunan rauni lokacin da gwamnati ta gabatar da shirin. Dokar Ilimi Bantu Ilimin baƙar fata, wanda ya taƙaita ilimin Baƙar fata zuwa matakin farko. Tutu ya ci gaba da aikin koyarwa har tsawon shekaru uku bayan haka, ganin irin karatun yaran da ya fara koyarwa a matakin kananan yara. Bayan haka ya yi murabus don nuna adawa da zagon kasa na siyasa na ilimin Baƙar fata.

A lokacin aikinsa a Munsieville High, Tutu ya yi tunani sosai game da shiga aikin firist, kuma daga ƙarshe ya ba da kansa ga Bishop na Johannesburg ya zama firist. A shekara ta 1955, tare da tsohon malamin sa, Zakes Mohutsiou, an shigar da shi a matsayin mai hidima a Krugersdorp. A nan Tutu ya tabbatar da cewa shi dalibi ne mai tauraro, wanda ya yi fice a karatunsa. An ba shi lasisin Tauhidi tare da rabe biyu. Tutu har yanzu yana kallon Al'ummar Tashin Kiyama da girmamawa kuma yana ganin bashin da ya bi musu ba zai iya lissafta shi ba.

An nada shi a matsayin dicon a watan Disamba 1960 a St Mary's Cathedral, Johannesburg kuma ya fara aikin sa na farko a Cocin St Albans a Benoni. Ya zuwa yanzu, Tutu da Leah suna da yara biyu, Trevor Thamsanqa da Thandeka Theresa. An haifi na uku, Nontombi Naomi a shekara ta 1960. A ƙarshen shekara ta 1961, aka naɗa Tutu a matsayin firist, bayan haka aka mai da shi sabon coci a Thokoza. An haifi ɗansu na huɗu, Mpho, a Landan a cikin 1963.

Desmond Tutu da matarsa, Lai'atu, da 'ya'yansu, daga hagu: Trevor Thamsanqa, Thandeka Theresa, Nontombi Naomi da Mpho Andrea, Ingila, c1964. (c) Taskokin Gidauniyar Mpilo, dangin Tutu na ladabi Madogarar hoto

A ranar 14 ga Satumba 1962, Tutu ya isa Landan don ci gaba da karatun tauhidi. An samo kudi daga wurare daban-daban kuma an ba shi tallafin karatu daga Kwalejin Kings da ke Landan kuma Majalisar Coci ta Duniya (WCC) ta ba shi tallafin karatu. A London, marubuci Nicholas Mosley ya sadu da shi a filin jirgin sama, tsarin da Uba Alfred Stubbs, tsohon malaminsa a Johannesburg ya shirya. Ta hanyar Mosley, Tutus ya sadu da Martin Kenyon wanda zai zama abokin dangi na rayuwa.

London ta kasance abin farin ciki ga dangin Tutu bayan shaƙawar rayuwa a ƙarƙashin mulkin wariyar launin fata. Tutu ya ma iya sha'awar wasan cricket. Tutu ya yi rajista a Kwalejin Kings, a Jami'ar London, inda ya sake yin fice. Ya kammala karatunsa a dakin taro na Royal Albert inda Uwargidan Sarauniya wadda ita ce shugabar jami'ar ta ba shi digiri.

Kwarewarsa ta farko na yin hidima ga ikilisiyar White ita ce a Golders Green, London, inda ya yi shekaru uku. Daga nan aka tura shi Surrey don yin wa’azi. Uba Stubbs ya ƙarfafa Tutu don yin rajista don karatun digiri. Ya shiga wani makala a kan addinin Musulunci don kyautar 'Archibishop's Essay Prize' kuma ya yi nasara sosai. Sannan ya yanke shawarar cewa wannan shine batun karatun digirinsa na biyu. Tutu ya yi tasiri sosai a kan ’yan cocinsa ta yadda bayan ya kammala digirinsa na biyu a fannin fasaha a shekarar 1966, duk kauyen da yake limamin cocin ya fito don yi masa bankwana.

Daga nan sai Tutu ya koma Afirka ta Kudu kuma ya koyar a Makarantar Tauhidi ta Tarayya a Alice a cikin Cape Cape, inda ya kasance daya daga cikin malamai shida. Baya ga kasancewarsa malami a Makarantar Sakandare, an kuma nada shi a matsayin malamin Anglican Chaplain a Jami'ar Fort Hare. A lokacin, shi ne limamin cocin Anglican da ya fi cancanta a ƙasar. A cikin 1968, yayin da yake ci gaba da koyarwa a Makarantar Sakandare, ya rubuta wata kasida kan tiyolojin aikin ƙaura don wata mujalla mai suna Outlook na Afirka ta Kudu.

A Alice ya fara aiki a kan digirinsa na digiri, yana hada sha'awar Islama da Tsohon Alkawari, ko da yake bai kammala ba. A lokaci guda kuma, Tutu ya fara bayyana ra'ayinsa game da wariyar launin fata. Lokacin da daliban makarantar hauza suka yi zanga-zangar adawa da ilimin wariyar launin fata, Tutu ya gano dalilinsu.

An ba shi damar zama shugaban makarantar Seminary na gaba kuma, a cikin 1970, ya zama mataimakin shugaban makarantar. Duk da haka, tare da bambancin ra'ayi ya karɓi gayyatar zama malami a Jami'ar Botswana, Lesotho da Swaziland, da ke Roma a Lesotho. A wannan lokacin, "Baƙar Tauhidi" ya isa Afirka ta Kudu kuma Tutu ya ba da wannan dalili da babbar sha'awa.

A cikin watan Agusta 1971, Dr Walter Carson, darektan riko na Asusun Ilimin Tauhidi (TEF), wanda aka fara a cikin 1960 don inganta ilimin tauhidi a cikin ƙasashe masu tasowa.

ya nemi Tutu da a tantance shi a matsayin Mataimakin Darakta a Afirka. Don haka dangin Tutu suka isa Ingila a cikin Janairu 1972, inda suka kafa gida a kudu maso gabashin London. Ayyukansa sun haɗa da aiki tare da ƙungiyar darektoci na duniya da ƙungiyar TEF. Tutu ya shafe kusan watanni shida yana balaguro zuwa kasashen duniya na uku kuma ya yi matukar farin ciki da samun damar yin balaguro a Afirka. A lokaci guda, an ba shi lasisi a matsayin Babban Curate a Cocin St Augustine da ke Bromley inda, kuma, ya yi matukar burge 'yan Ikklesiya.

A cikin 1974 Leslie Stradling, Bishop na Johannesburg, yayi ritaya aka fara neman magajinsa. Duk da haka, Timothy Bavin, wanda ya ci gaba da zabar Tutu a lokacin zaben, an zabe shi a matsayin Bishop. Sannan ya gayyaci Tutu ya zama shugabansa. Don haka Tutu ya koma Afirka ta Kudu a cikin 1975 don ɗaukar matsayi a matsayin Baƙar fata Anglican Dean na farko na Johannesburg da Rector na St Mary's Cathedral Parish a Johannesburg. Anan ya kawo sauye-sauye na gaske, wanda sau da yawa yakan ɓata wa wasu Fararen Ikklesiya rai.

A ranar 6 ga Mayu 1976, ya aika da budaddiyar wasika zuwa ga Firayim Minista na lokacin. John Vorster yana tunatar da shi yadda Afrikaners suka sami ’yancinsu, kuma, ya jawo hankalinsa ga cewa baƙar fata ba za su iya samun ’yanci a ƙasashensu ba; abubuwan ban tsoro na dokokin wucewa; da kuma nuna wariyar launin fata. Ya bukaci a kira taron kasa na shugabanni da aka sani tare da ba da shawarar hanyoyin da gwamnati za ta iya tabbatar da gaskiyar ta a cikin abin da aka ambata na kin neman sauyi cikin lumana. Bayan makonni uku, Gwamnati ta amsa da cewa dalilin da ya sa ya rubuta wasikar shine yada farfagandar siyasa.

On 16 Yuni 1976, Daliban Soweto sun fara tayar da hankali kan tilasta musu yarda da harshen Afrikaans a matsayin harshen koyarwa da kuma ƙarancin ilimin da aka tilasta musu su jimre. Tutu shine Vicar Janar lokacin da ya sami labarin kisan kiyashin da 'yan sanda suka yi tare da kashe dalibai. Ya shafe ranar yana tare da dalibai da iyaye, sannan ya taka rawar gani a kwamitin rikicin iyaye na Soweto wanda aka kafa bayan kashe-kashen.

Bayan haka, an shawo kan Tutu ya karɓi matsayin Bishop na Lesotho. Bayan tattaunawa mai yawa tare da danginsa da abokan aikin coci, ya yarda, kuma a ranar 11 ga Yuli 1976 ya shiga tsarkakewa. A lokacin ziyararsa zuwa yankunan karkara, ya kan yi tafiya a kan doki, wani lokaci har na tsawon sa'o'i takwas. Yayin da yake kasar Lesotho, bai yi kasa a gwiwa ba wajen sukar gwamnatin da ba a zaba ba a lokacin. A lokaci guda kuma, ya yi wa wani ɗan ƙasar Lesotho, Philip Mokuku ado don ya gaje shi. Har ila yau, a lokacin yana Lesotho ne aka gayyace shi don gabatar da jawabin jana'izar a mayaƙin 'yanci. Steve Biko jana'izar. ‘Yan sandan Afirka ta Kudu ne suka kashe Biko a tsare.

Bayan 'yan watanni kawai a sabon mukaminsa, an gayyaci Tutu ya zama Babban Sakatare na Majalisar Cocin Afirka ta Kudu (SACC), wanda ya hau kan 1 Maris 1978. A 1981, Tutu ya zama Rector na St Augustine's Church a Orlando West, Soweto kuma a farkon 1982 ya rubuta wa Firayim Minista na Isra'ila yana rokonsa ya daina jefa bam a Beirut; Yayin da a lokaci guda kuma ya rubuta wa shugaban Falasdinawa Yasser Arafat, yana mai kira gare shi da ya yi amfani da "hakika mafi girma game da wanzuwar Isra'ila". Ya kuma rubutawa firaministan Zimbabwe da Lesotho da Swaziland da shugabannin Botswana da Mozambik inda ya gode musu bisa karbar bakuncin 'yan gudun hijirar Afirka ta Kudu tare da yin kira gare su da kada su mayar da wani dan gudun hijira zuwa Afirka ta Kudu.

Duk wannan ya kawo martani mai mahimmanci da fushi daga masu ra'ayin mazan jiya na Afirka ta Kudu Whites da kuma a wasu lokuta har ma da kafofin watsa labaru na yau da kullum, duk da haka babu wani lokaci Tutu ya manta da kiransa na firist. Yayin da yake a SACC, ya tambaya Sheena Duncan, Shugaban kasar Black Sash don fara ofisoshin shawarwari. Ya kuma fara Hukumar Samar da damar Ilimi don karfafa wa ‘yan Afirka ta Kudu kwarin gwiwar samun ilimi a kasashen ketare. Tabbas, ya kuma ci gaba da sukar sa ga manufofin Gwamnati na tilasta korar baki da tsarin gida.

A shekarar 1983, lokacin da jama'a Mogopa, wani ƙaramin ƙauye a cikin Western Transvaal na lokacin, an cire shi daga ƙasashen kakanninsu zuwa mahaifar mahaifa. Bophuthatswana kuma ya ruguza gidajensu, ya buga wa shugabannin cocin waya, ya kuma shirya tsayuwar dare Dr Allan Boesak da sauran firistoci suka halarci.

A wasu lokuta ana sukar Tutu saboda lokacin da ya yi balaguro zuwa ketare. Koyaya, waɗannan tafiye-tafiyen sun zama dole don tara kuɗi don ayyukan SACC. Yayin da yake sukar gwamnati a fili, ya kasance mai girman gaske wajen yabo ko nuna godiya a lokacin da aka samu nasarar yaki da wariyar launin fata - alal misali, lokacin da ya taya Ministan 'yan sanda, Louis le Grange, kyale fursunonin siyasa su yi. bayan karatun digiri.

A cikin 1980s, Tutu ya sami fushin farar fata na Afirka ta Kudu masu ra'ayin mazan jiya lokacin da ya ce za a sami Firayim Minista baƙar fata a cikin shekaru biyar zuwa goma masu zuwa. Ya kuma yi kira ga iyaye da su goyi bayan kauracewa makaranta tare da gargadin gwamnati cewa za a sake samun tarzomar 1976 idan ta ci gaba da tsare masu zanga-zangar. Tutu ya kuma yi Allah wadai da Majalisar Shugaban kasar inda shawarar kwalejin zabe ta Farare, Launi da Indiyawa za a kafa. A gefe guda kuma, a wani taro a Jami’ar Witwatersrand a shekarar 1985, wanda kwamitin rigingimun iyaye na Soweto ya kira, Tutu ya yi gargaɗi game da tsararraki marasa ilimi waɗanda ba za su sami ƙwarewar da ake bukata ba don samun mukamai a Afirka ta Kudu bayan wariyar launin fata.

A ranar 7 ga Agusta 1980, Bishop Tutu da tawagar shugabannin coci da SACC sun gana da Firayim Minista PW Botha da tawagar majalisar ministocinsa. Wannan taro ne mai cike da tarihi wanda shi ne karon farko da wani shugaban Bakar fata, a wajen tsarin, ya tattauna da wani shugaban gwamnatin farar fata. Sai dai babu wani abu da ya fito daga tattaunawar, saboda gwamnati ta ci gaba da matsayarta.

A cikin 1980, Tutu kuma ya halarci wani tattaki tare da wasu shugabannin coci a Johannesburg, suna kira da a saki John Thorne, Ministan cocin da aka tsare. An kama limaman ne a karkashin dokar Majalisar Dattawa mai tayar da hankali kuma Tutu ya kwana na farko a tsare. Abu ne mai ban tausayi, wanda ya haifar da barazanar kisa, tsoratar bam, da kuma jita-jita masu lalata game da bishop. A wannan lokacin, gwamnati ta ci gaba da tozarta Tutu. Bugu da ƙari kuma, Gwamnati ta ɗauki nauyin kungiyoyi irin su Ƙungiyoyin Kirista, waɗanda suka karɓi kuɗi don gudanar da kamfen na yaƙi da SACC kuma don haka ya ƙara lalata tasirin Tutu.

Desmond Tutu a kurkuku. Madogarar hoto

A lokacin tafiye-tafiyensa zuwa kasashen waje, Tutu ya yi magana mai gamsarwa game da wariyar launin fata; tsarin aiki na ƙaura; da sauran matsalolin zamantakewa da siyasa. A cikin Maris 1980, Gwamnati ta janye fasfo na Tutu. Hakan ya hana shi tafiya zuwa kasashen waje domin karbar kyaututtukan da ake yi masa. Misali, shi ne mutum na farko da Jami’ar Ruhr ta Jamus ta Yamma ta ba shi digirin girmamawa, amma bai iya tafiya ba saboda an hana shi fasfo. Daga karshe gwamnati ta mayar da fasfo dinsa a watan Janairun 1981, kuma a sakamakon haka ya sami damar yin balaguro da yawa zuwa Turai da Amurka kan kasuwancin SACC, kuma a cikin 1983 Tutu ya sami masu sauraro masu zaman kansu tare da Paparoma inda ya tattauna halin da ake ciki a Afirka ta Kudu.

Paparoma John Paul na biyu ya gana da Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a tsakiya dama, a 1983 a fadar Vatican. (Hoton CNS/Giancarlo Giuliani, Hotunan Jarida na Katolika) Madogarar hoto

Zazzage jerin duk lambobin yabo da girmamawa na Desmond Tutu anan (pdf)

Gwamnati ta ci gaba da tsananta wa Tutu a cikin 1980s. Gwamnati ta zargi kungiyar ta SACC da karbar miliyoyin rand daga ketare domin tada tarzoma. Don nuna cewa babu kanshin gaskiya a wannan ikirari, Tutu ya kalubalanci gwamnati da ta gurfanar da SACC a gaban kotu amma gwamnati ta nada Hukumar Bincike ta Eloff don bincika SACC. Daga karshe dai hukumar ba ta samu wata shaida da ke nuna cewa ana amfani da hukumar ta SACC daga kasashen ketare ba. 

A cikin watan Satumba na 1982, bayan watanni goma sha takwas ba tare da fasfo ba, an ba Tutu da iyakacin 'takardun tafiya'. Kuma, shi da matarsa ​​sun yi tafiya zuwa Amurka. A lokaci guda kuma mutane da dama sun yi ta rade-radin a maido da fasfo din Tutu, ciki har da George Bush, mataimakin shugaban kasar Amurka a lokacin. A Amurka, Tutu ya sami damar ilimantar da Amurkawa game da Nelson Mandela da Oliver Tambo, wadanda yawancin Amurkawa jahilai ne. A lokaci guda kuma, ya sami damar tara kudade don ayyuka da dama da ya shiga cikin su. A yayin ziyarar, ya kuma yi jawabi ga kwamitin sulhu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan halin da ake ciki a Afirka ta Kudu.

A 1983, ya halarci taron kaddamar da National Forum, wata kungiya mai zaman kanta Baki Sani kungiyoyi da Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). A cikin watan Agusta 1983, an zabe shi mataimaki na United Democratic Front (UDF). Tutu na adawa da wariyar launin fata da yunƙurin al'umma ya samu cikas da na matarsa, Lai'atu. Ta ba da gudummawar samar da ingantacciyar yanayin aiki ga ma'aikatan gida a Afirka ta Kudu. A cikin 1983, ta taimaka wajen kafa Ƙungiyar Ma'aikatan Cikin Gida ta Afirka ta Kudu.

Leah Tutu Madogarar hoto

A ranar 18 ga Oktoba 1984, yayin da yake Amurka, Tutu ya sami labarin cewa an ba shi lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel saboda ƙoƙarinsa na yin kira da a kawo ƙarshen mulkin farar fata a Afirka ta Kudu; da hana ƙungiyoyin 'yanci; da kuma sakin dukkan fursunonin siyasa. Ainihin lambar yabo ta faru ne a Jami'ar Oslo, Norway a ranar 10 ga Disamba 1984. Yayin da 'yan Afirka ta Kudu baƙar fata ke bikin wannan babbar lambar yabo, gwamnati ta yi shiru, ba ta kuma taya Tutu murnar nasarar da ya samu ba. Jama’a dai sun yi ta cece-ku-ce, inda wasu suka yi masa yabo, wasu kuma suka gwammace su ci mutuncinsa. A watan Nuwamba 1984, Tutu ya koyi cewa an zabe shi a matsayin Bishop na Johannesburg. A lokaci guda kuma masu zaginsa, galibin farar fata (da wasu ƴan baƙar fata misali Lennox Sebe, shugaban Ciskei) ba su ji daɗin zaɓensa ba. Ya shafe watanni goma sha takwas yana wannan mukami kafin daga karshe aka zabe shi a matsayin Bishop na Cape Town a shekarar 1985. Shi ne Bakar fata na farko da ya hau wannan mukamin.

A wata ziyarar da suka kai Amurka a shekarar 1984, Tutu da Dokta Allan Boesak sun gana da Sanata Edward Kennedy inda suka gayyace shi zuwa Afirka ta Kudu. Kennedy ya karɓi tayin kuma a cikin 1985 ya iso, ziyartar Winnie Mandela a Brandfort, Orange Free State inda aka kore ta kuma ta kwana tare da dangin Tutu don ƙin yarda. Dokar Yankunan Rukuni. Sai dai ziyarar ta taso ne da cece-kuce da kuma Kungiyar Jama'ar Azaniya (AZAPO) sun gudanar da zanga-zangar adawa da ziyarar Kennedy.

Bishop Desmond Tutu na Afirka ta Kudu, dama, yana maraba da Sanata Edward Kennedy na Amurka lokacin da ya isa Johannesburg, Janairu 5, 1985 HOTO: REUTERS Madogarar hoto

A Duduza da ke Gabashin Rand a shekarar 1985, Tutu, tare da taimakon Bishops Simeon Nkoane da Kenneth Oram suka shiga tsakani don ceto ran wani dan sanda Bakar fata, wanda jama'a suka so kashe shi da laifin zama dan sanda leken asiri. Bayan 'yan kwanaki, a wani katon jana'izar a KwaThema, Gabashin Rand, Tutu sun yi tir da tashin hankali da rashin tausayi a kowane nau'i; ko dai gwamnati ce ta yi gaggawar ta ko ta mutane masu launi.

A cikin 1985, gwamnati ta kafa wani Dokar Baci a cikin gundumomi 36 na magisterial. An sanya takunkumi mai tsanani kan jana'izar 'siyasa'. Tutu ya yi kira ga Ministan ‘yan sandan da ya sake duba wadannan ka’idoji kuma ya ce zai bi su. Daga nan sai Tutu ya aike da sakon wayar tarho ga firaminista Botha inda ya bukaci a gudanar da taron gaggawa domin tattauna lamarin. An buga masa waya yana sanar da shi Botha ya ki ganinsa. Kusan shekara guda bayan haka ya sadu da Botha, amma babu abin da ya zo na wannan taron.

Tutu ya kuma yi ganawar da ba ta yi nasara ba tare da Firaministan Birtaniya, Margaret Thatcher, wadda ta kasance mai goyon bayan gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu, kuma daga baya ta ki ganawa da sakataren harkokin wajen Birtaniya Geoffrey Howe, a ziyarar da ya kai Afrika ta Kudu. Jaridun Afirka ta Kudu sun ba da rahoto sosai game da balaguron tara kuɗin da ya yi a Amurka a 1986, galibi ba tare da mahallin ba, musamman kiran da ya yi ga gwamnatocin Yammacin Turai da su goyi bayan dakatarwar. Majalisar Wakilan Afirka (ANC), wanda a lokacin, abu ne mai hatsarin gaske.

A cikin Fabrairu 1986 Garin Alexandra Johannesburg ya tashi da wuta. Tutu tare da Reverend Beyers Naude, Dr Boesak da sauran shugabannin coci sun je garin Alexandra kuma sun taimaka wajen shawo kan lamarin. Daga nan sai ya tafi Cape Town don ganin Botha, amma kuma an yi masa rauni. A maimakon haka, ya hadu Adriaan Vlok, Mataimakin Ministan Shari'a, oda da tsaro. Ya kai rahoto ga mazauna birnin Alexandra cewa babu ko daya daga cikin bukatunsu da aka biya kuma gwamnati kawai ta ce za ta duba bukatunsu. Sai dai jama'a ba su gamsu ba, wasu kuma suka fusata yayin da wasu matasa suka yi masa ihu suna tilasta masa ya tafi.

A ranar 7 ga Satumba 1986, aka nada Tutu a matsayin Archbishop na Cape Town, ya zama Bakar fata na farko da ya jagoranci Cocin Anglican na lardin Kudancin Afirka. Har ila yau, an yi farin ciki sosai a lokacin da aka zaɓe shi a matsayin Akbishop, amma masu cin zarafi sun kasance masu tsanani. A filin wasa na Goodwood sama da mutane 10,000 ne suka hallara domin karrama shi domin bikin Eucharist. Shugaban ANC mai gudun hijira Oliver Tambo sannan shugabannin kasashe 45 sun aike masa da sakon taya murna.

Shekara guda bayan zaben dimokuradiyya na farko da ya kawo karshen mulkin 'yan tsiraru na White a 1994, an nada Tutu a matsayin shugaban jam'iyyar. Gaskiya da sulhu (TRC), don magance ta'asar da aka yi a baya. Tutu ya yi ritaya a matsayin Archbishop na Cape Town a 1996 domin ya ba da duk lokacinsa ga aikin TRC. Daga baya aka nada shi a matsayin Archbishop Emeritus. A cikin 1997, an gano Tutu da ciwon gurguwar prostate kuma an yi nasarar samun magani a Amurka. Duk da wannan ciwon ya ci gaba da aiki da hukumar. Daga baya ya zama majibincin Gidauniyar Prostate Cancer Foundation ta Afirka ta Kudu, wacce aka kafa a cikin 2007.

A cikin 1998 da Desmond Tutu Peace Center (DTPC) Archbishop Desmond Tutu da Misis Leah Tutu ne suka kafa shi. Cibiyar tana taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen ginawa da yin amfani da gadon Archbishop Tutu don ba da damar zaman lafiya a duniya.

A cikin 2004 Tutu ya koma Ƙasar Ingila don zama malami mai ziyara a Kwalejin King. Har ila yau, ya shafe shekaru biyu, a matsayin Farfesa na Tauhidi a Jami'ar Emory da ke Atlanta, Jojiya, kuma ya ci gaba da tafiye-tafiye da yawa don neman adalci don dalilai masu kyau, ciki da wajen kasarsa. A Afirka ta Kudu, daya daga cikin manyan abubuwan da ya mayar da hankali a kai shi ne kiwon lafiya, musamman batun HIV/AIDS da tarin fuka. A cikin Janairu 2004 an kafa gidauniyar Desmond Tutu HIV a bisa ka'ida karkashin jagorancin Farfesa Robin Wood da Mataimakin Farfesa Linda-Gail Bekker. Gidauniyar tana da farkonta a matsayin Sashin Bincike na HIV wanda aka kafa a Sabon Asibitin Somerset a farkon 1990s kuma an san shi a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin asibitocin jama'a na farko don ba da maganin rigakafin cutar kanjamau ga waɗanda ke zaune tare da HIV.

Kwanan nan, gidauniyar da ke samun goyon bayan Emeritus Archbishop Desmond da Leah Tutu, ta tsawaita ayyukanta da suka hada da maganin cutar kanjamau, rigakafi da horaswa gami da kula da cutar tarin fuka a cikin al’ummomin da suka fi fama da cutar ta Western Cape.

Tutu na ci gaba da tofa albarkacin bakinsu kan al'amuran da'a da siyasa da suka shafi Afirka ta Kudu da sauran kasashe. Duk da cewa ya dade yana goyon bayan jam’iyyar ANC, bai ji tsoron sukar gwamnati da jam’iyya mai mulki ba a lokacin da yake ganin ta gaza akidar dimokaradiyyar da mutane da dama ke fafutuka a kai. Ya sha yin kira da a samar da zaman lafiya a Zimbabwe, sannan ya kwatanta ayyukan gwamnatin tsohon shugaban Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe da na gwamnatin wariyar launin fata ta Afirka ta Kudu. Har ila yau, mai goyon bayan al'ummar Falasdinu ne da kuma al'ummar gabashin Timor. Mutum ne da ya fito fili ya soki yadda ake musgunawa fursunoni a Guantanamo Bay kuma ya yi magana kan take hakkin dan Adam a Burma. Yayin da take ci gaba da tsare ta a gidan yari a matsayin fursuna a jihar, Tutu ta yi kira da a saki Aung San Suu Kyi, tsohuwar shugabar 'yan adawar Burma kuma ta samu kyautar Nobel ta zaman lafiya. Sai dai kuma da zarar an saki Suu Kyi, Tutu ma ba ta ji tsoron yin suka a bainar jama'a ba game da shirun da ta yi wajen fuskantar cin zarafi da 'yan kabilar Rohingya a Myanmar.

A 2007, Tutu ya shiga tsohon shugaban kasa Nelson Mandela; tsohon shugaban Amurka Jimmy Carter; Sakatare Janar na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Kofi Annan mai ritaya; da tsohuwar Shugabar Irish Mary Robinson don kafa dattawan, wani shiri mai zaman kansa wanda ke tattara kwarewar manyan shugabannin duniya a waje da tsarin diflomasiyya na al'ada. An zabi Tutu ya zama shugaban kungiyar. Bayan haka, Carter da Tutu sun yi tafiya tare zuwa Darfur, Gaza da Cyprus a kokarin warware rikice-rikicen da aka dade ana yi. Irin nasarorin da Tutu ya samu a tarihi da kuma ci gaba da kokarinsa na samar da zaman lafiya a duniya, Amurka ce ta amince da shi a hukumance a shekara ta 2009, lokacin da shugaba Barack Obama ya nada shi don karbar lambar yabo ta farar hula mafi girma a kasar, lambar yabo ta shugaban kasa ta 'Yanci.

Tutu a hukumance ya yi ritaya daga rayuwar jama'a a ranar 7 ga Oktoba 2010. Duk da haka, ya ci gaba da shigansa tare da Dattawa da Ƙungiyar Laureate na Nobel da goyon bayan Cibiyar Zaman Lafiya ta Desmond Tutu. Sai dai ya sauka daga mukaminsa na Shugaban Jami'ar Western Cape da kuma wakilin kwamitin ba da shawara na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan rigakafin kisan kare dangi.

A cikin makon da ya kai ga cika shekaru 80, Tutu an jefa shi cikin hasashe. Jagoran addinin Tibet, Dalai Lama, wanda ya yi gudun hijira a shekarar 1959 bayan ya jagoranci zanga-zangar adawa da mulkin kasar Sin, Tutu ne ya gayyace shi don gabatar da lacca ta farko ta Desmond Tutu na zaman lafiya a yayin bikin kwanaki uku na cikar Tutu shekaru 80 da haihuwa a birnin Cape Town. Gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu ta jinkirta yayin da take yanke shawarar ko za ta ba Dalai Lama takardar biza, mai yiwuwa ta san cewa ta yin hakan za su iya tayar da hankalin abokan huldarsu a China. Ya zuwa ranar 4 ga Oktoba, 2011, Dalai Lama har yanzu ba a ba shi biza ba don haka ya soke tafiyarsa, yana mai cewa ba zai zo Afirka ta Kudu ba bayan haka, saboda gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu ta ga abin da bai dace ba. suna son sanya kowane mutum ko gwamnati a cikin wani matsayi wanda ba zai iya tsayawa ba. Gwamnati ta kama kafarta ta baya ta yi kokarin kare jinkirin da ta yi. Al'ummar Afirka ta Kudu daga sassa daban-daban na zamantakewa da siyasa, shugabannin addinai, malamai da kungiyoyin farar hula, sun hada kai wajen yin Allah wadai da matakin da gwamnatin kasar ta dauka. A wani yanayi da ba kasafai ake nuna bacin rai ba Tutu ta kaddamar da wani mummunan hari kan ANC da Shugaba Jacob Zuma, yana nuna fushinsa ga matsayin gwamnati game da Dalai Lama. A baya an ki Dalai Lama takardar bizar zuwa Afirka ta Kudu a 2009. Tutu da Dalai Lama sun ci gaba da rubuta littafi tare duk da haka.

A cikin 'yan shekarun nan, Tutu ya kasance mai saurin kamuwa da matsalolin lafiya da suka shafi ciwon daji na prostate. Duk da haka, duk da rashin lafiyarsa, Tutu yana ci gaba da girmama shi sosai don iliminsa, ra'ayoyinsa da gogewarsa, musamman a cikin sulhu. A watan Yulin 2014 Tutu ya bayyana cewa ya yi imanin cewa mutum yana da ‘yancin mutuwa da mutunci, ra’ayin da ya tattauna a kan bikin cikarsa shekaru 85 a shekara ta 2016. Ya ci gaba da sukar gwamnatin Afirka ta Kudu kan badakalar cin hanci da rashawa da kuma abin da ya ce asarar tasu ce. halin kirki kamfas.

Diyarsa, Mpho Tutu-van Furth, ta auri abokiyar zamanta Farfesa Marceline van Furth a watan Mayun 2016, wanda ya sa ya kasance mai yawan magana fiye da da, wajen goyon bayan 'yancin ɗan luwadi a duniya da kuma cikin Cocin Anglican. Tutu bai daina yin magana a bainar jama'a ba game da abin da ya ɗauka na lalata, ko a China Turai, ko Amurka. Tutu ne ya kirkiri kalmar nan mai suna 'Bakan gizo Nation' don bayyana kyawun banbance-banbance tsakanin mutane daban-daban a Afirka ta Kudu. Duk da cewa farin jinin kalmar ya ragu a cikin shekaru da yawa, har yanzu akidar hadin kan al'ummar Afirka ta Kudu ita ce abin da ake so.

A shekara ta 2015, don bikin cika shekaru 60 da aurensu, Tutu da Leah sun sabunta alkawarinsu.

Sanarwa daga Jagoran Yawon shakatawa na Duniya: Farfesa Geoffrey Lipman

Na sadu da Archbishop sau da yawa, lokacin da nake shugaban kasa WTTC a cikin 1990s - mafi abin tunawa lokacin da muka tafi tare da tsohon shugaban Afirka ta S. De Klerk da dama Nobel Lareatesin zuwa Ramalla don raka jagoran 'yan adawa na Isra'ila na lokacin, Shimon Peres don ganawa da Yasser Arafat da Jagorancin PLA.

Tafiya ta farko da wani shugaban Isra'ila ya yi zuwa babban birnin kasar. Kuma ta hanyar faruwa ba da jimawa ba a cikin jirgin sama na transatlantic zuwa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya. Abin alfahari ne zama a cikin kamfaninsa…. koyaushe murmushi mai ban mamaki da tunani mai kyau.

Kuma ban dariya mai ban dariya - labarin da ya fi so shine game da wani mutumin da ya fado daga wani dutse ya kama reshe don ceton rayuwarsa. Ya yi kururuwa don neman taimako yana ihu "akwai wani a can" sai wata murya ta ce ni ne Ubangiji Allahnka, ka saki reshen kuma za ka sake iyo har zuwa lafiya. Kuma mutumin ya yi kururuwa "Akwai wani a can"

Wannan ya kwatanta mutumin.

Jawabin shugaban kasar Afirka ta Kudu Cyril Ramaphosa

Shugaban Afirka ta Kudu Cyril Ramaphosa ya bayyana a madadin daukacin 'yan Afirka ta Kudu, babban bakin cikinsa na rasuwar Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Mpilo Tutu a yau Lahadi 26 ga Disamba, 2021.

Archbishop Tutu, wanda ya kasance dan Afrika ta Kudu na karshe da ya samu kyautar zaman lafiya ta Nobel, ya rasu a birnin Cape Town yana da shekaru 90 a duniya.

Shugaba Ramaphosa ya mika sakon ta'aziyyarsa ga Mam Leah Tutu, dangin Tutu, hukumar gudanarwa da ma'aikatan gidauniyar Desmond da Leah Tutu Legacy Foundation, da dattawa da kungiyar masu lambar yabo ta Nobel, da abokai da abokan arziki da abokan arziki na kasa da ma duniya baki daya. , mai fafutukar yaki da wariyar launin fata kuma mai fafutukar kare hakkin bil'adama na duniya.

Shugaba Ramaphosa ya ce: “Rasuwar Archbishop Emeritus Desmond Tutu wani babi ne na bakin ciki a cikin bankwana da al’ummar kasarmu ga fitattun ‘yan Afirka ta Kudu da suka ba mu gadon ‘yantacciyar Afirka ta Kudu.

“Desmond Tutu ya kasance dan kishin kasa ba tare da daidaito ba; shugaban ka'ida da ƙwararru wanda ya ba da ma'ana ga fahimtar Littafi Mai Tsarki cewa bangaskiya ba tare da ayyuka matacce ba ne.

“Mutumin mai hankali da gaskiya da rashin nasara a kan dakarun wariyar launin fata, ya kasance mai tausayi da rauni a cikin tausayin wadanda suka fuskanci zalunci, rashin adalci da tashin hankali a karkashin mulkin wariyar launin fata, da zalunci da zalunci a duniya.

"A matsayinsa na shugaban kwamitin gaskiya da sulhu ya bayyana fushin duniya game da barnar mulkin wariyar launin fata kuma ya nuna zurfin ma'anar ubuntu, sulhu da gafara.

“Ya sanya dimbin nasarorin da ya samu a fannin ilimi wajen hidimar gwagwarmayarmu da kuma hidimar tabbatar da adalci a zamantakewa da tattalin arziki a duniya.

“Daga tudun mun tsira a Afirka ta Kudu har zuwa kan mimbari na manyan majami’u da wuraren ibada na duniya, da kuma wurin da aka yi bikin bayar da lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel, Arch ya bambanta kansa a matsayin wanda ba na addini ba, wanda ya hada da kare hakkin dan Adam na duniya baki daya.

“A cikin rayuwarsa mai cike da ruguzawa amma kuma mai cike da kalubale, Desmond Tutu ya shawo kan cutar tarin fuka, zaluncin jami’an tsaron wariyar launin fata da kuma jajircewar gwamnatocin wariyar launin fata. Ko Casspirs, hayaki mai sa hawaye ko jami'an tsaro ba za su iya tsoratar da shi ko kuma su hana shi tsayawa tsayin daka ga 'yantar da mu ba.

“Ya kasance mai gaskiya ga hukuncin da aka yanke masa a lokacin mulkin dimokuradiyyar mu kuma ya ci gaba da taka-tsantsan yayin da yake rike da jagoranci da cibiyoyi masu tasowa na dimokaradiyyar mu ta hanyar da ba za ta iya tserewa ba kuma mai karfafa gwiwa.

“Muna raba wannan babban rashi tare da Mam Leah Tutu, uwargidan Archbishop kuma tushen karfi da basira, wacce ta ba da gudummawa mai tsoka a hakkinta na ‘yancinmu da kuma ci gaban dimokuradiyyarmu.

"Muna addu'ar Allah ya sa ran Archbishop Tutu ya huta amma ruhunsa ya tsaya tsayin daka kan makomar kasarmu."

WANDA MINISTAN SHUGABAN KASA MONDLI GUNGUBELE YA FITAR

Mondli Gungubele ɗan siyasan Afirka ta Kudu ne, shugaban ƙungiyar ƙwadago kuma malami wanda ke rike da mukamin minista a fadar shugaban ƙasa a halin yanzu kuma memba a majalisar dokokin ƙasar Afirka ta Kudu mai wakiltar Afirka ta Kudu.

www.thepresidency.gov.za

Shafin Farko

Game da marubucin

Juergen T Steinmetz

Juergen Thomas Steinmetz ya ci gaba da aiki a masana'antar tafiye-tafiye da yawon buɗe ido tun yana saurayi a Jamus (1977).
Ya kafa eTurboNews a cikin 1999 azaman wasiƙar farko ta yanar gizo don masana'antar yawon shakatawa ta duniya.

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