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Guji Damuwar Wine. Yi Farin Ciki da Sha Legendes na Bordeaux

Yi farin ciki. Sha Bordeaux

Ba abin mamaki bane cewa giya tana samuwa a cikin launuka masu yawa - daga bayyane kamar ruwa, zuwa zurfi, duhu kuma mai daɗi kamar karammis ɗin siliki na da. Hakanan ba abin mamaki bane cewa ruwan inabi na Bordeaux yana daga cikin mashahuran duniya.

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  1. Yankin Bordeaux shine yanki mafi girma na samar da ruwan inabi a Faransa kuma ya ƙunshi kadada 280,000 na inabi da 60 Appellations d'Origine Controlees (AOCs).
  2. An fara yin giya a yankin kudu maso yammacin Faransa lokacin da Romawa suka iso (tunanin ƙarni na farko).
  3. Kodayake an yaba yankin don jan giya, yana da ban sha'awa a lura cewa wannan sanannen sabon salo ne.

Yawaitar Giya

A tarihi, yankin Bordeaux ya kasance kyawawa don (mafi yawa) farin giya tare da masu shaye -shayen da ke ba da fiye da kashi 80 na gonakin inabinsu zuwa Sauternes, Barsac, Bordeaux Blanc da Kabbarori.

Ba har zuwa 1700s cewa jan giya daga Bordeaux sha'awar kasuwa da masu sha'awar ruwan inabi na Ingilishi sun rungumi jajayen ruwan Bordeaux daga Kabari kuma suka sanya mata suna Claret (klairette). Da zarar masu shaye -shaye sun lura da hauhawar siyan jan giya, sai suka fara canzawa daga fari zuwa samar da ruwan inabi. Canjin ya zama na hukuma a cikin rarrabuwa na 1855 wanda ya gano mafi kyawun masu samarwa a yankin, yana mai da su 1-5. Ba a taɓa canza rarrabuwa ba (ban da sau ɗaya) duk da cewa akwai wasu fitattun giya da yawa.

Don tabbatar da yadda yankin ya shahara wajen yin giya, yi la’akari da gaskiyar cewa yankin yana goyan bayan masu chataux 6100 da sauran masu shuka waɗanda ke samar da kwalaben giya miliyan 650 (2019). Na shekarar 2019 ya kunshi kashi 85.2 cikin dari ja; Kashi 4.4 ya tashi; 9.2 kashi bushe fari, da 1.2 kashi farin farin.

Bordeaux shine babban ma'aikaci a cikin al'adun gargajiya da masana'antar giya, yana ba da ayyuka sama da 55,000 kai tsaye da kai tsaye. Uku daga cikin kowane kadada 4 na aikin gona a yankin suna shuka inabi kuma gaba ɗaya akwai masu shan giya 5,6000 waɗanda ke samar da giya AOC. Daga cikin waɗannan kashi 56 cikin ɗari na kasuwancin mallakar iyali ne, tare da matsakaicin girman gonar inabin 19.6ha tare da manyan gonakin inabi a Entre deux Mers da Medoc. Kimanin kashi 5 cikin ɗari na faɗin gonar inabin Bordeaux na mallakar kadarorin da ke cikin bankunan Hagu da Dama (winescholarguild.org).

A cikin yankin, masu mallakar chateaux galibi suna siyar da 'ya'yan inabi ta hannun wani ɗan adam wanda ke aiki a matsayin mutum na tsakiya ta hanyar siyan rabon inabi da siyarwa / rarraba ruwan inabin. Daga ruwan inabin da ake samarwa a yankin Bordeaux, kashi 58 cikin dari ana siyarwa ne a cikin Faransa yayin da sauran kashi 43 cikin ɗari ana fitar da su zuwa duniya.

Ba Siyasa Ba. Geography: Hagu, Dama, Tsakiya

An raba yankin Bordeaux ta hanyar ƙasa ta Gironde estuary zuwa Bankin Hagu, Bankin Dama da Entre-Deux-Mer (yankin tsakanin Gironde Estuary da Kogin Dordogne).

Bankin Hagu. Masu son giya suna samun Medoc, Kabbarori da Sauternais (mafi kyawun ta'addanci - tushen tsakuwa)

• Abubuwan Medoc na Cabernet Sauvignon; 'ya'yan inabi suna girma a cikin cakuda ƙasa mai yumɓu da filaye na alluvial.

• Ƙaburbura sun ƙunshi Cabernet Sauvignon; ƙasa mai tsakuwa saboda aikin glacial na tarihi.

• Sauternais yana fasalta Sauternes (farin farin giya); matsanancin tsakuwa wanda ke ba da damar malalewa, yana hana inabi samun ruwa da yawa.

Bankin Dama. Masu son ruwan inabi suna samun Libournais, Balye da Bourg (ƙasa mai cike da yumbu da limestone)

• Libournais yana fasalta Saint-Emilion, Montagne, Pomerol, Fronsac, Cotes de Castillon; galibin farar ƙasa, yashi da ƙasa yumɓu.

• Alamar Balye ta ƙunshi Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon da Cabernet Franc; galibin yumɓu akan ƙasan limestone.

• Bourg ya ƙunshi Malbec, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle, da Semillon da Colombard da Ungi; yashi, yumɓu, tsakuwa da ƙasa ta ƙasa.

Entre-Deux-Mers (fararen giya kawai ke ɗaukar karar AOC); Cadillac, Loupiac, Sainte-Croix-du Mont

• Cadillac (wanda aka sani da farin giya mai ɗanɗano) yana da fasali na Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc da Sauvignon Gris; m da gravelly kasa.

• Loupiac ya ƙunshi Semillon, Sauvignon Blanc, Muscadelle da Sauvignon Gris; yumɓu, ƙasa farar ƙasa wanda aka haɗa da tsakuwa da yumɓu.

• Sante-Croix-du Mont ya ƙunshi Semillon, Muscadelle, da Sauvignon; yumbu, ƙasa mai farar ƙasa.

Farin ruwan inabi na Bordeaux galibi ana yin su da Sauvignon Blanc da Semillon kuma ana lura da su da daɗi da sabo (Entre-Deux-Mers) zuwa mai taushi da ɗanɗano-kamar (Pessac-Leognan).

Jan giya daga Bordeaux yawanci matsakaici ne cike da ƙanshin baƙar fata, plums da ƙasa ko rigar tsakuwa. A saman, bayanin dandano ya haɗa da ma'adinai, 'ya'yan itace da kayan ƙanshi, suna ba da tannins da yawa (masu kyau don tsufa).

Ja Bordeaux galibi cakudawa ne tare da alamomi da ke bayyana kiran ruwan inabi maimakon takamaiman nau'in innabi da aka haɗa. Farin iri ya ƙunshi ragowar kashi 100 na inabin da aka shuka, tare da 5 % Sauvignon Blanc da Semillon tare da Muscadelle kashi ɗaya da sauran fararen fata.

Daga cikin kurangar inabin da aka shuka a yankin, kashi 89 cikin ɗari ja ne, kashi 59 cikin ɗari na Merlot, kashi 19 cikin ɗari na Cabernet Sauvignon, kashi 8 cikin ɗari na Cabernet Franc kuma kashi biyu na ƙarshe sun haɗa da Petit Verdot, Malbec ko Carmenere.

Ko Yanayi

Itacen inabi na Bordeaux suna jin daɗin dogon lokaci, ɗumi mai ɗumi, ruwan bazara da faɗuwa, sannan matsakaicin lokacin sanyi. La Foret des Landes, babban gandun daji na bishiyoyi, yana kare yankin Bordeaux daga tasirin yanayi na tekun Atlantika; duk da haka, canjin yanayi yana tasiri a yankin kuma yana haifar da sakamako. Institut National de l'origine et de la Qualite (INAO), sashin Ma'aikatar Aikin Noma ta Faransa, ya shafe shekaru goma yana binciken canjin yanayi. Masana kimiyyar ruwan inabi da masu shuka a Bordeaux suna yin la’akari da tasirin dumamar yanayi kuma kwanan nan sun amince da sabbin nau'ikan da suka dace don rage damuwar ruwa da ke da alaƙa da hauhawar zafin jiki da gajeriyar hawan girma.

A watan Yuni, 2019, Ƙungiyoyin Bordeaux da Bordeaux Superieur sun amince da ƙarin sabbin cututtuka guda bakwai da nau'in innabi masu jure zafin rana kuma wannan yana wakiltar gyara na farko ga asalin iri 13 na yankin tun 1935. Sabbin nau'ikan guda bakwai da aka amince sun haɗa da ja (Marselan, Touriga Nacional, Castets, Arinarnoa), da fari (Alvarinho, da Lilorila) tare da fara shuka sabbin iri da aka shirya a wannan shekarar. Sabbin iri sun iyakance zuwa kashi 5 cikin ɗari na yankin gonar inabin da aka shuka kuma ba za su iya lissafin sama da kashi 10 na cakuda na ƙarshe na kowane launi ba.

Bordeaux ta bullo da wasu dabaru na fasaha da aikin gona don magance canjin yanayi wanda ya haɗa da: daidaita ayyuka mafi kyau ga buƙatun kowane girbi - jinkirta datsawa, haɓaka tsayin gangar inabi don rage yankin ganye; iyakance bakin-ganye don kare inabi daga rana; daidaita wuraren tukunya don rage damuwar ruwa (dindindin ko yanayi ya cika da ruwa wanda ke haifar da yanayin anaerobic); girbi dare da rage yawaitar shuka.

Dorewa

Fiye da kashi 65 cikin 30 na gonakin inabin Bordeaux suna da ingantaccen muhalli (sabon ma'aunin yanki). Bordeaux yana jagorantar duk AOPs na Faransanci a cikin ƙimar takaddun Babban Mahalli (HVE) don masu shan giya, bayan sun kai matakin babban takaddun shaida mai dorewa a Faransa da haɓaka kashi XNUMX cikin ɗari na aikin gona.

Masu shayarwa a Bordeaux suna da hangen nesa tare da sadaukar da kai don magance canjin yanayi ta hanyar kiyaye ƙarancin ruwa da albarkatun makamashi; kare muhallin halittu masu rauni; da tallafawa nau'o'in halittu daga mafi kyawun ayyukan gonar inabin zuwa madaidaicin marufi. Alƙawarin ɗorewa ya haɗa da hankali don haɓaka amincin ma'aikaci, gamsuwa da aiki da horo da haɓakawa/horo ga tsararraki na yanzu da na gaba.

Muhimmin Wine Chateau a Bordeaux

Domaines Barons de Rothschild (Lafite) Les Legendes Suna Sa Kyakkyawan Inabi Mai Kyau

Tarihin ruwan inabi na Lafite da Latour ya kai ƙarni. Lokaci na farko da sunan Lafite ya bayyana tun daga ƙarni na 13 (1234) lokacin da aka ambaci Gombaud de Lafite, wani babban limamin gidan sufi na Vertheuil (arewacin Pauillac). Sunan Lafite ya fito ne daga kalmar Gascon "la hite" ko hillock.

Ana tsammanin cewa gonar inabin sun riga sun kasance a cikin kadarar lokacin da dangin Segur suka shirya gonar inabin a karni na 17 kuma Lafite ya fara zama babban gidan giya. A cikin karni na 18 Lafite ya fara bincika kasuwar London kuma an lura da shi a cikin Gazette na London (1707) yana kwatanta ruwan inabi a matsayin Sabon faren Faransa. Robert Walpole, Firayim Minista, yana siyan gangar Lafite kowane wata uku. Sha'awar Faransa game da giya ta Bordeaux ba ta fara ba sai bayan shekaru da yawa bayan bin sawun Britaniya.

A cikin karni na 18 Marquis Nicolas Alexandre de Segur ya inganta dabarun yin giya kuma ya inganta martabar giya mai kyau a kasuwannin waje kuma musamman a Kotun Versailles. An san shi da "Yariman Wine," Lafite ya zama Wine na Sarauniya tare da goyan bayan jakadan da ya cancanta, Marechal de Richelieu. Lokacin da aka nada Richelieu Gwamnan Guyenne, ya nemi shawarar likitan Bordeaux wanda ya shawarce shi cewa Chateau Lafite shine, "mafi kyau kuma mafi daɗi na duk kayan tonic." Lokacin da Richeliu ya koma Paris, Louis XV ya gaya masa, "Marechal, ka fi ɗan shekara ashirin da biyar da ka yi lokacin da ka tafi Guyenne." Richeliu ya yi iƙirarin cewa ya sami Maɓallin Matasa tare da ruwan inabin Chateau Lafite wanda a matsayin, "mai daɗi, mai karimci, mai daɗi, kwatankwacin ambrosia na Allolin Olympus."

Lafite yana da kyakkyawar talla a Versailles kuma ya sami yardar Sarki. Kowa yanzu yana son giya ta Lafite kuma Madame de Pompadour ta gabatar da ita tare da liyafar cin abincinta kuma Madame du Barry tayi hidimar ruwan inabi na Sarki na musamman.

Gilashin Bordeaux mai daraja na aristocracy na Faransa (Domaines Barons de Rothschild/Lafite) suna samuwa a gare mu ta alamar Legende.

1.            Legende Medoc 2018. 50 % Merlot, 40 % Cabernet Sauvignon, 10 % Petit Verdot. Wasu tsofaffi a cikin itacen oak na tsawon watanni 8 suna ba da bayanan vanilla da muryoyin hayaƙi.       

Ido yana cike da farin ja mai ƙarfi yayin da hanci ke nishadantar da ƙamshin turare mai ƙamshi mai daɗi, jan 'ya'yan itatuwa, cakuda mai daɗi, ɗaci, gishiri da tsami (tunanin licorice), waɗanda bayanan mocha da toast daga tsufa ganga suka inganta. . Dandano yana ɗorawa a kan bakin da ke gabatar da gogewa wanda ke da daɗi kuma yana ba da ɗanɗano sabo a ƙarshen. Haɗa tare da naman sa, rago, naman sa, ko kaji.

2.            Legende R Paulillac 2017. 70 % Cabernet Sauvignon, 30 % Merlot. Kashi sittin cikin dari a cikin itacen oak na Faransa tsawon watanni 12.

Farkon hangen nesa na wannan ruwan inabi mai zurfi mai zurfi tare da alamun baƙar fata yana ba da shawarar zai zama mai fa'ida kuma mai hankali. Hanci yana gano kyakkyawan fure mai ƙamshi, jam rasberi, vanilla da duwatsu da farin ciki suna haɗuwa tare. Mai dogaro da kai a kan bakin, yana ba da alamun 'ya'yan itacen baƙar fata, kwakwa, da vanilla tare da tannins mai rufi. Wannan ruwan inabi ne mai cike da jiki kuma yana yin magana mai ƙarfi. Haɗa tare da nama na nama, stew, cheeses ɗin da suka manyanta kamar Comte da Saint Netaire.

3.            Legende Saint-Emilion 2016. Kashi 95 cikin 5 Merlot, kashi XNUMX cikin dari Cabernet Franc (daga yankin Libourne). Kashi arba'in da haihuwa a cikin gangaren itacen oak na Faransa.

Kallon farko na wannan ruwan inabi yana gabatar da baƙar fata mai launin shuɗi. Hanci yana farin ciki lokacin da ya sami lasisi, plum, cherries, katako da taba. Ana ba da lada tare da shawarwarin mocha, ganye, cloves, turare, tsohuwar itace da tsarin tannin mai wadata. Haɗa tare da duck ko terrine da quince jelly, kafada na rago gasashe da Rosemary ko thyme, pizza da taliya napolitana ko lasagna.

4.            Legende R Bordeaux Rouge 2018. 60 % Cabernet Sauvignon, 40 % Merlot.

Ya tsufa watanni 9 a cikin kwarangwal na kankare da kashi 60 na gauraya ta ƙarshe da ta tsufa a cikin ganga.

Crimson ga ido tare da jan 'ya'yan itace da blackberries, licorice da kayan ƙanshi masu daɗin ɗanɗano hanci, musamman masu sha'awar ƙanshin mocha da gasa daga ƙwanƙwasa tsufa. Fresh da 'ya'yan itace a kan bakin, ƙarshen yana da daɗi. Haɗa tare da risotto tare da miya miya, taliya Bolognese, naman alade da salami. 

5.            Legende R Bordeaux Blanc 2020. 70 % Sauvignon Blanc, 30 % Semillon.

Ido yana farin ciki tare da mafi ƙarancin launin rawaya na zinariya tare da ƙyallen bambaro. Ana ba da lasisin hanci tare da shawarwarin 'ya'yan itace na wurare masu zafi da alamun ma'adinai. Ana yaudarar ɓarna ta zagaye da ƙamshi mai ɗanɗano wanda ke haifar da ɗanɗano mai daɗi. Haɗa tare da abincin teku, ɗanyen kawa, komai tare da miya Bearnaise da salatin kore (miya marar ruwan inabi).

E Dakta Elinor a hankali. Wannan labarin haƙƙin mallaka, gami da hotuna, ba za a sake buga shi ba tare da rubutaccen izini daga marubucin ba.

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Game da marubucin

Dr. Elinor Garely - na musamman ne ga eTN kuma edita a babban, wines.travel

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