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Sabuwar rahoton haɗarin CDC akan COVID Shot na uku

CDC ta ƙaddamar da haɗin gwiwa kan ƙwayoyin cuta na ƙasa
CDC ta ƙaddamar da haɗin gwiwa

Harbi na uku. Menene illolin aikin lafiyar jama'a?
Dangane da wannan rahoton na CDC a yau abubuwan da ke haifar da lafiyar jama'a o v-safe ba su sami alamun rashin jin daɗi ba bayan ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19.
CDC ta yi alƙawarin za ta ci gaba da sa ido kan amincin rigakafin, gami da ƙarin allurar COVID-19.

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  • Nazarin CDC akan Kula da Tsaro na ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19
  • Abin da aka riga aka sani game da thko mai kara harbi?
  • Daga cikin mahalarta gwajin gwajin asibiti na Pfizer-BioNTech na 306, munanan halayen bayan kashi 3 sun yi kama da na bayan kashi 2.

Abin da wannan rahoto ya ƙara akan lamba mai lamba 3 da CDC ta saki yau?

A cikin watan Agusta 12-Satumba 19, 2021, tsakanin masu rajista v-safe 12,591 waɗanda suka kammala binciken duba lafiya bayan duk allurai 3 na mRNA COVID-19, kashi 79.4% da 74.1% sun ba da rahoton halayen gida ko na tsarin, bi da bi, bayan kashi na uku; 77.6% da 76.5% sun ba da rahoton halayen gida ko tsarin bayan kashi na biyu, bi da bi.

Menene abubuwan da ke faruwa ga aikin kiwon lafiyar jama'a?

Ba da rahoton son rai ga v-safe ba ta sami alamun rashin jin daɗi ba bayan ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19. CDC za ta ci gaba da sa ido kan amincin rigakafin, gami da ƙarin allurai na COVID-19.

A ranar 12 ga Agusta, 2021, Hukumar Abinci da Magunguna (FDA) ta gyara izinin Amfani da Gaggawa (EUAs) don allurar Pfizer-BioNTech da Moderna COVID-19 don ba da izinin gudanar da ƙarin allura bayan kammala jerin allurar rigakafin farko ga mutanen da suka cancanta matsakaici zuwa matsanancin yanayin rigakafi (1,2). A ranar 22 ga Satumba, 2021, FDA ta ba da izinin ƙarin allurar rigakafin Pfizer-BioNTech months watanni 6 bayan kammala jerin farko tsakanin mutanen da shekarunsu suka kai ≥65, a cikin babban haɗarin COVID-19 mai tsanani, ko wanda sana'arsu ko fallasa ayyukansu ya sanya su. babban haɗari ga COVID-19 (1). Sakamako daga gwajin asibiti na lokaci na 3 wanda Pfizer-BioNTech ya gudanar wanda ya haɗa da mutane 306 masu shekaru 18-55 sun nuna cewa munanan halayen bayan an karɓi kashi na uku da aka gudanar watanni 5-8 bayan kammala jerin allurar rigakafin mRNA na farko kashi biyu sun yi kama da wadanda aka ruwaito bayan samun kashi 2; waɗannan halayen halayen sun haɗa da rukunin allura mai sauƙi zuwa matsakaici da halayen tsarin (3). CDC ta haɓaka v-safe, mai sa kai, tsarin sa ido na tsaro na wayar salula, don ba da bayani game da halayen da ba su dace ba bayan allurar COVID-19.

Daidai da izini na ƙarin allura ga mutanen da ke da yanayin rigakafi, an sabunta dandalin v-safe don ba da damar masu rajista su shigar da bayanai game da ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 da aka karɓa. A cikin watan Agusta 12-19 ga Satumba, 2021, jimillar masu rajista v-safe 22,191 sun ba da rahoton samun ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19. Yawancin (97.6%) sun ba da rahoton jerin alluran rigakafin mRNA na kashi biyu na kashi biyu sannan kashi na uku na allurar iri ɗaya. Daga cikin waɗanda suka kammala binciken duba lafiya don duka allurai 2 (3; 12,591%), 58.1% da 79.4% sun ba da rahoton halayen gida ko tsarin, bi da bi, bayan kashi 74.1, idan aka kwatanta da 3% da 77.6% waɗanda suka ba da rahoton gida ko tsarin halayen, bi da bi, bayan kashi 76.5. Waɗannan binciken na farko ba su nuna alamun alamun rashin jin daɗi bayan ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-2; yawancin waɗannan halayen halayen sun kasance masu sauƙi ko matsakaici. CDC za ta ci gaba da sa ido kan amincin allurar rigakafi, gami da amincin ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19, da samar da bayanai don jagorantar shawarwarin rigakafin da kare lafiyar jama'a.

V-safe shine tsarin sa ido na tsaro na Amurka na son rai, na wayar salula; mutanen da aka yiwa allurar da suka cancanci karɓar samfuran rigakafin da aka ba da izini ko lasisi na iya yin rijista cikin v-safe. Dandalin v-safe yana ba wa masu rijista na yanzu damar yin rahoton samun ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 da sabbin masu yin rajista don shigar da bayanai game da duk alluran rigakafin COVID-19 da aka karɓa. Ana aika binciken lafiya na V-lafiya a cikin kwanaki 0-7 bayan kowane kashi na allurar rigakafi kuma ya haɗa da tambayoyi game da wurin allurar gida da halayen tsarin da tasirin kiwon lafiya. Ma'aikata daga Tsarin Rahoton Bayanai na Ƙarshe (VAERS) suna tuntuɓar masu rajista waɗanda ke nuna cewa an nemi kulawar likita bayan allurar rigakafi kuma suna ƙarfafawa ko sauƙaƙe kammala rahoton VAERS, idan an nuna.§

Daga cikin masu yin rajista na v-safe waɗanda suka ba da rahoton karɓar ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 a watan Agusta 12-Satumba 19, 2021, bayanan alƙaluma, halayen gida da tsarin, da tasirin kiwon lafiya da aka ruwaito a cikin kwanaki 0-7 an bayyana su ta hanyar allurar rigakafi (watau , mai ƙera allurar da aka karɓa ga kowane kashi). Mutanen da suka ba da rahoton karɓar jerin farko daga masana'anta daban-daban ko masana'anta wanda ba a sani ba ko babu a cikin Amurka, ko allurai 2 na allurar rigakafi bayan karɓar Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) allurar rigakafi guda ɗaya (150) an cire su daga binciken. na m halayen bayan samu na ƙarin kashi.

Lokaci ya wuce daga kammala jerin alluran riga -kafi har zuwa karɓar ƙarin allura an bayyana shi ta tsarin allurar rigakafi. An kwatanta bayanan abubuwan da ke faruwa bayan allurai 2 da 3 ga masu yin rajista waɗanda suka karɓi allurar mRNA daga masana'anta ɗaya don duk allurai 3. An yi amfani da software na SAS (sigar 9.4; Cibiyar SAS) don gudanar da duk nazarin. CDC ta sake duba waɗannan ayyukan sa idon kuma an yi su daidai da dokokin tarayya da suka dace da manufar CDC. **

A cikin watan Agusta 12-Satumba 19, 2021, jimillar masu rajista v-safe 22,191 sun ba da rahoton samun ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 bayan kammala jerin farko (Table 1). Daga cikin waɗannan, 14,048 (63.3%) mata ne, kuma kusan kashi 30% kowannensu yana da shekaru 18 - 49, 50 - 64, da shekaru 65 - 74.

Yawancin masu yin rajista (21,662; 97.6%) sun ba da rahoton cewa sun karɓi kashi na uku daga masana'anta iri ɗaya kamar jerin rigakafin mRNA na farko, gami da 98.6% na masu karɓar Moderna da 98.2% na masu karɓar Pfizer-BioNTech. Ƙananan masu yin rajista (341; 1.5%) sun ba da rahoton jerin allurar rigakafin mRNA na farko wanda ya biyo bayan ƙarin allurar rigakafin mRNA daga masana'anta daban -daban, allurar rigakafin Janssen bayan karɓar jerin rigakafin mRNA na farko (10; 0.05%), ko ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 daga kowane mai ƙerawa bayan allurar Janssen (178; 0.8%).

Daga cikin 22,191 masu yin rajistar v-lafiya, tsaka-tsakin tsaka-tsaki daga kammala jerin rigakafin COVID-19 na farko zuwa karɓar ƙarin allurai shine kwanaki 182 (kewayon cibiyar [IQR] = kwanaki 160–202) (Table 2). Daga cikin waɗanda suka karɓi allurai 2 na allurar Janssen, tsaka -tsaki tsakanin allurai ya fi guntu (kwanaki 84; IQR = kwanaki 16-136).

Na gida (16,615; 74.9%) da tsarin (15,503; 69.9%) ana yawan ba da rahoton halayen a cikin sati bayan ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19, galibi a ranar bayan allurar. Hanyoyin da aka ruwaito akai -akai sune raunin rukunin yanar gizo (15,761; 71.0%), gajiya (12,429; 56.0%), da ciwon kai (9,636; 43.4%).

Daga cikin 22,191 ƙarin masu karɓar kashi, jimlar 7,067 (31.8%) sun ba da rahoton tasirin kiwon lafiya, kuma kusan 28.3% (6,287) sun ba da rahoton cewa ba su iya yin ayyukan yau da kullun na yau da kullun ba, galibi a ranar bayan allurar rigakafi. Masu neman rajista 401 (1.8%) sun nemi kulawar likita, kuma goma sha uku (0.1%) an kwantar da su a asibiti. Ba a gano dalilan samun kulawar likita ko asibiti ba a binciken v-safe; duk da haka, masu yin rajista waɗanda ke nuna cewa an nemi kulawar likita bayan allurar rigakafi ma'aikatan VAERS sun tuntube su kuma sun ƙarfafa su don kammala rahoton VAERS.

Daga cikin 21,658 masu rijista masu lafiya na v-safe waɗanda suka sami allurar mRNA iri ɗaya ga duk allurai 3, 12,591 (58.1%) sun kammala aƙalla binciken duba lafiya ɗaya a ranakun 0–7 bayan duk allurai 3; 79.4% da 74.1% sun ba da rahoton halayen gida ko na tsarin, bi da bi, bayan kashi 3, idan aka kwatanta da 77.6% da 76.5% waɗanda suka ba da rahoton halayen gida ko tsarin, bi da bi, bayan kashi 2. Daga cikin masu yin rajista waɗanda suka karɓi allurai 3 na Moderna (6,283), na gida An ruwaito halayen sau da yawa bayan kashi 3 fiye da kashi 2 (5,323; 84.7% da 5,249; 83.5%; p-value = 0.03) (Figure). An ba da rahoton halayen tsarin sau da yawa bayan kashi 3 fiye da kashi 2 (4,963; 79.0% da 5,105; 81.3%; p-darajar <0.001).

Daga cikin masu yin rajista da suka karɓi allurai 3 na Pfizer-BioNTech (6,308), an ba da rahoton halayen gida sau da yawa bayan kashi 3 fiye da kashi 2 (4,674; 74.1% da 4,523; 71.7%; p-darajar <0.001). An ba da rahoton halayen tsarin sau da yawa bayan kashi 3 fiye da kashi 2 (4,363; 69.2% da 4,524; 71.7%; p-darajar <0.001). Daga cikin waɗanda suka ba da rahoton ciwo bayan kashi 3 na allurar mRNA, yawancin halayen sun kasance masu sauƙi (4,909; 51.4%) ko matsakaici (4,000; 41.9%); ciwo mai tsanani (wanda aka ayyana azaman zafi wanda ke sa ayyukan yau da kullun wahala ko ba zai yiwu ba) 637 (6.7%) ya ruwaito.

tattaunawa

Ya zuwa 19 ga Satumba, 2021, kusan mutane miliyan 2.21 a Amurka sun karɓi ƙarin alluran rigakafin COVID-19†† bayan kammala jerin farko. Daga watan Agusta 12 zuwa 19 ga Satumba, 2021, ba a lura da wani abin da ba a zata ba a cikin masu yin rajista v-safe 22,191 waɗanda suka sami ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19. Yawancin halayen gida da na tsarin da aka ruwaito sun kasance masu sauƙi zuwa matsakaici, na ɗan lokaci, kuma galibi ana ba da rahoton ranar bayan allurar. Yawancin masu rejista waɗanda suka sami ƙarin allura sun ba da rahoton jerin allurar rigakafin mRNA na farko sannan kashi na uku daga masana'anta iri ɗaya.

Gwajin asibiti na Pfizer-BioNTech, wanda ya haɗa da mutane 306 masu shekaru 18-55, sun nuna cewa halayen bayan kashi 3 sun kasance daidai da waɗanda aka ruwaito bayan kashi 2 (3). Koyaya, wannan bincike na bayanan amintattu na v sun sami halayen gida sun ɗan fi yawa kuma halayen tsarin ba su da yawa bayan kashi 3 na Pfizer-BioNTech.

Tsarin halayen halayen da aka lura bayan kashi 3 na rigakafin Moderna ko Pfizer-BioNTech sun yi daidai da halayen da aka bayyana a baya bayan karɓar kashi 2

Adadin masu yin rajista waɗanda suka nuna cewa sun karɓi allurai 2 na allurar Janssen ko kuma sun karɓi ƙarin adadinsu daga masana'anta daban da na jerin su na farko kaɗan ne, yana iyakance duk wani sakamako.

Bayanai kan aminci ko tasirin allurar rigakafi tare da samfuran rigakafin COVID-19 daga masana'anta daban-daban sun iyakance; Kwamitin Ba da Shawara kan Ayyukan Allurar rigakafi (ACIP) ya ba da shawarar cewa mutanen da ke da matsakaici zuwa yanayin rashin ƙarfi mai ƙarfi suna samun kashi na uku na allurar mRNA COVID-19 daga masana'anta iri ɗaya kamar jerin su na farko.

Shawarwarin CDC don ƙarin allurar a halin yanzu ba ta haɗa da mutanen da suka karɓi allurar Janssen ba.

A cikin lokacin da wannan binciken ya ƙunsa, shawarwarin ACIP don ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 an iyakance su ga mutanen da ke da matsakaici zuwa yanayin rashin ƙarfi mai ƙarfi wanda ya karɓa

2 allurai na allurar mRNA.

Nazarin da aka gudanar tsakanin marasa lafiyar hemodialysis marasa lafiya sun ba da rahoton cewa halayen gida da tsarin bayan kashi na 3 na allurar Pfizer-BioNTech sun yi kama da na bayan kashi 2.. Rahotannin baya-bayan nan na kamuwa da cuta a cikin mutanen da aka yi wa allurar rigakafi da ƙaruwa a cikin yawan kamuwa da cuta tare da bambancin B.1.617.2 (Delta) na SARS-CoV-2, ƙwayar da ke haifar da COVID-19, tsakanin mutanen da aka yi wa allurar na iya sa wasu mutane su nemi ƙarin kashi a waje da shawarwari. Tsaka -tsakin tsaka -tsaki daga kammala jerin firamare zuwa karɓar ƙarin allura ya kusan watanni 6; don haka, mutanen da aka fifita a yayin ƙaddamar da allurar COVID-19, gami da ma'aikatan kiwon lafiya da tsofaffi, na iya samun ƙarin allurar.

Abubuwan da aka gano a cikin wannan rahoton suna ƙarƙashin ƙuntatawa huɗu. Na farko, yin rajista a cikin v-safe na son rai ne kuma mai yiwuwa ba wakilin jama'ar Amurka ne da aka yi wa allurar rigakafi ba; akasarin mahalarta sun bayyana kansu a matsayin Fari da Ba-Hispanic. Na biyu, yayin wannan lokacin karatun, ƙarin shawarwarin kashi an iyakance ga mutanen da ke da yanayin rigakafi wanda ya kammala jerin rigakafin mRNA COVID-19 na farko; duk da haka, v-safe baya haɗa da bayani game da matsayin rigakafi.

Ƙarin masu karɓa na iya haɗawa da mutane tare da ba tare da yanayin rigakafi ba. Na uku, alaƙar alaƙa tsakanin allurar rigakafi da mummunan haɗarin asibiti da aka ruwaito bayan allurar rigakafi ba za a iya kafa ta amfani da bayanan tsaro ba. A ƙarshe, akwai isassun bayanai don tantance alamu na halayen halayen bayan karɓar ƙarin allura daga masana'anta daban da na farko ko don allurar Janssen.

Ana ba da shawarar ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19 na mRNA ga mutanen da ke da matsakaici zuwa yanayin rashin ƙarfi na rigakafi (5).

CDC ta ba da shawarar ƙarin allurar rigakafin Pfizer-BioNTech months watanni 6 bayan kammala jerin alluran rigakafin farko tsakanin mutane masu shekaru ≥65, mazauna cikin saitunan kulawa na dogon lokaci, da kuma mutane masu shekaru 50-64 masu fama da larurar rashin lafiya; mutane masu shekaru 18-49 masu fama da larurar rashin lafiya da kuma mutane masu shekaru 18-64 cikin haɗarin haɗarin COVID-19 da watsawa saboda yanayin aiki ko na ƙungiya na iya samun ƙarin allurai dangane da fa'idodin mutum ɗaya da haɗarin su.

Binciken farko na bayanan aminci daga> masu rijista na amintattu na 22,000 sun nuna cewa halayen ɗan ƙaramin ƙarawa kuma halayen tsarin na ɗan rage kaɗan bayan kashi na 3 na mRNA fiye da bayan kashi 2.

Ba a gano alamun rashin lafiyan halayen da ba a zata ba; wadanda aka ruwaito sun kasance masu saukin kai zuwa matsakaiciya da na wucin gadi. CDC za ta ci gaba da sa ido kan amincin ƙarin allurar rigakafin COVID-19. Ƙarin bayanai kan munanan halayen da ke tattare da haɗe -haɗe daban -daban na alluran rigakafi da na lokaci tun lokacin kammala jerin farko zai zama da mahimmanci don jagorantar shawarwarin lafiyar jama'a.

halayyarModerna, % (n = 10,601)Pfizer-BioNTech, % (n = 11,412)Janssen, %, § (n = 178)jimla
(N = 22,191)
Kashi na 3 Moderna
(n = 10,453; 98.6%)
Sashi na 3 Pfizer-BioNTech
(n = 144; 1.4%)
Sashi na 3 Janssen
(n = 4; 0.04%)
Sashi na 3 Pfizer-BioNTech
(n = 11,209; 98.2%)
Kashi na 3 Moderna
(n = 197; 1.7%)
Sashi na 3 Janssen
(n = 6; 0.1%)
Sashi na 2 Janssen
(n = 48; 27.0%)
Kashi na 2 Moderna
(n = 64; 36.0%)
Sashi na 2 Pfizer-BioNTech
(n = 66; 37.1%)
Sex
Mace63.863.950.063.063.533.339.657.859.163.3
Namiji35.134.050.036.136.066.760.442.240.935.7
unknown1.02.100.90.500001.0
Ƙungiyar shekaru, yrs
0-170.00.70.00.60.00.00.00.00.00.3
18-4925.736.125.031.542.650.054.260.957.629.1
50-6428.427.150.031.129.90.033.334.330.329.8
65-7433.927.10.027.821.350.010.44.79.130.5
75-8410.99.025.08.35.60.02.10.03.09.5
≥851.10.00.00.70.50.00.00.00.00.9
kabilanci
Hispanic / Latino8.015.308.25.6025.06.310.68.2
Ba-Hispanic/Latino87.781.910087.690.910054.289.189.487.6
unknown4.32.804.23.6020.84.704.2
race
AI/AN0.50.700.50.502.1000.5
Asian4.95.606.17.102.114.113.65.6
Black5.63.506.21.516.76.36.39.15.9
NHPI0.2000.30.504.2000.3
White82.682.610080.485.866.756.371.969.781.4
Yawancin jama'a1.92.101.81.516.74.24.73.01.9
Other2.14.202.10.506.31.63.02.1
unknown2.31.402.52.5018.81.61.52.4

Abbreviations: AI/AN = Ba'amurke Ba'amurke/'Yan asalin Alaska; NHPI = 'Yan ƙasar Hauwa'u ko wani ɗan Tsibirin Pacific.
* Adadin masu rijista da suka kammala aƙalla binciken duba lafiya na v-lafiya a kwanaki 0-7 bayan allurar rigakafi.
 Jerin allurar rigakafi na farko.
§ Ya haɗa da mutanen da suka karɓi kashi na farko na Janssen guda ɗaya da ƙarin allurar rigakafi 1 daga masana'antun da aka lissafa.

ReactionModerna, % (n = 10,477)Pfizer-BioNTech, % (n = 11,284)Janssen, %, § (n = 174)jimla
(N = 22,191)
Kashi na 3 Moderna
(n = 10,453; 98.6%)
Sashi na 3 Pfizer-BioNTech
(n = 144; 1.4%)
Sashi na 3 Janssen
(n = 4; 0.04%)
Sashi na 3 Pfizer-BioNTech
(n = 11,209; 98.2%)
Kashi na 3 Moderna
(n = 197; 1.7%)
Sashi na 3 Janssen
(n = 6; 0.1%)
Sashi na 2 Janssen
(n = 48; 27.0%)
Kashi na 2 Moderna
(n = 64; 36.0%)
Sashi na 2 Pfizer-BioNTech
(n = 66; 37.1%)
Kwanaki tun jerin farko, na tsakiya (IQR)182 (164 - 198)183 (161 - 204)173 (141 - 182)183 (157 - 209)186 (161 - 217)123 (113 - 182)84 (16 - 136)156 (140 - 164)150 (136 - 167)182 (160 - 202)
Duk wani martani na shafin allura80.964.675.069.481.783.325.070.380.374.9
Itching20.011.808.410.216.710.46.37.613.9
Pain75.960.475.066.680.283.320.868.874.271.0
redness25.28.309.820.816.76.37.812.117.1
kumburi33.617.4016.830.516.76.312.518.224.8
Duk wani tsari na tsari75.259.750.065.176.110031.368.863.669.9
Abun ciki na ciki8.43.506.48.116.74.23.16.17.3
Myalgia49.829.2036.349.250.020.845.333.342.7
Hannu31.38.350.017.533.550.08.323.410.624.1
zawo9.97.609.09.616.78.36.39.19.4
gajiya61.844.4051.060.983.314.648.450.056.0
Fever36.420.150.022.237.150.06.337.512.129.0
ciwon kai49.031.1038.449.783.318.835.940.943.4
hadin gwiwa zafi33.018.8023.031.033.316.720.319.727.7
Tashin zuciya18.810.425.013.621.333.38.39.418.216.1
Rash2.30.701.92.504.21.61.52.1
Vomiting2.22.125.01.42.002.1001.7
Duk wani tasiri na lafiya39.219.4025.239.133.316.728.124.231.8
An kasa yin ayyukan yau da kullun na yau da kullun35.218.1022.133.033.310.425.015.228.3
Ba zai iya aiki ko halartar makaranta ba13.74.909.021.316.710.46.313.611.3
Ana buƙatar kulawar likita2.11.401.53.006.3001.8
Telehealth0.90.700.71.002.1000.8
Asibiti0.70.700.60.504.2000.6
Ziyarar gaggawa0.2000.2004.2000.2
arin0.05000.1000000.1
FASAHAMunanan halayen da tasirin kiwon lafiya waɗanda mutanen da suka karɓi allurai 3 na Moderna (N = 6,283) ko Pfizer-BioNTech (N = 6,308) allurar COVID-19 kuma sun kammala aƙalla binciken binciken lafiya na v-lafiya a kwanaki 0- 7 bayan kowane kashi, ta lambar lamba - Amurka, Agusta 12 - Satumba 19, 2021
Adadi shine ginshiƙi na mashaya wanda ke nuna halayen rashin lafiya da tasirin kiwon lafiya wanda mutanen da suka karɓi allurai 3 na Moderna (N = 6,283) ko Pfizer-BioNTech (N = 6,308) allurar COVID-19 kuma sun kammala aƙalla gwajin lafiya guda ɗaya na lafiya. binciken a ranakun 0–7 bayan kowace allura, ta lambar kashi, a Amurka a lokacin Agusta 12 - Satumba 19, 2021.
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Game da marubucin

Juergen T Steinmetz

Juergen Thomas Steinmetz ya ci gaba da aiki a masana'antar tafiye-tafiye da yawon buɗe ido tun yana saurayi a Jamus (1977).
Ya kafa eTurboNews a cikin 1999 azaman wasiƙar farko ta yanar gizo don masana'antar yawon shakatawa ta duniya.

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