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Masanin falsafar Jamus, Martin Buber
Masanin falsafar Jamus, Martin Buber

Yawan mutanen Gabashin Turai, musamman Poland da Ukraine, matalauta ne, galibi ba su da ilimi, kuma ba su da ɗabi'a da ƙwarewar manyan Yammacin Turai. Saboda waɗannan manyan bambance -bambance, masu ilimin Yammacin Turai galibi suna nuna raini ga talakawan Gabashin Turai da ke zaune a cikin ƙasashen da suka miƙa daga Poland zuwa gandun daji na Rasha kuma daga Ukraine zuwa Balkans.

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Masanin falsafar Jamus, Martin Buber
  1. Lokacin fin de siècle (ƙarshen 19th da farkon karni na 20) shine zamanin zinare na takardun kimiyya da falsafar Jamus.
  2. Hakanan lokacin ya kasance zamanin babban talauci a Gabashin Turai.
  3. Bambance -bambancen da ke tsakanin ɓangarorin biyu na Turai sun baiyana ta hanyoyi da yawa. Yammacin Turai ya kasance mai wadata, al'adu da fasaha.

Abin da ya kasance gaskiya ga al'umman Turai gaba ɗaya, ya kasance gaskiya ga duniyar Yahudawa. 'Yancin Napoleon na yahudawa daga ghettos na Faransa da Jamus ya haifar da yaɗuwar Yahudawa cikin al'ummar Turai ta Yamma.

Yahudawan Yammacin Turai sun yi magana da yaren al'ummarsu kuma sun ɗauki tsarin al'adun Turai. Da yawa sun yi karatu a manyan jami'o'in Turai. Kamar yadda yake a cikin mutanen ƙasarsu, yawancin yahudawan Yammacin Turai sun kasance suna raina Yahudawan Gabashin Turai. Yawancin Yahudawan Poland, Rasha da Yukren talakawa ne kuma ba su da ilimi a yaren da al'adun yamma. Sun zauna a ƙauyukan da ake kira shtetls (kamar yadda aka bayyana a "Fiddler on the Roof"). Yahudawan Yammacin Turai da Amurkawa sun ga 'yan uwansu na gabas a matsayin alamomin duk abin da suka nemi tserewa.

A cikin wannan nahiya mai rarrabuwa ne babban Bayahude Masanin falsafar Jamus, Martin Buber (1878-1965), ya shafe kashin farko na rayuwarsa.

A cikin farkon shekarun da suka gabata na ƙarni na 20, Buber yana ɗaya daga cikin manyan masana falsafa na Jamus. Ya shahara da rayuwar yahudawa ta Gabashin Turai kuma ya kasance gadar da ta haɗa waɗannan duniyoyin biyu.

Kafin tashin Nazi na Jamus, Buber farfesa ne a Jami'ar Frankfort kuma marubuci ne mai ƙwazo a cikin Jamusanci da Ibrananci duka. Har yanzu ana karanta aikinsa na falsafa na yau da kullun "Ich und Du" (Ni da Kai) a duk duniya.

Yawancin masu sukar adabi da masana falsafa sun ɗauki Buber a matsayin gwarzon farkon falsafar ƙarni na 20 da tunanin zamantakewa. Aikinsa na ilimi ya yi babban tasiri a fannoni daban -daban, gami da ilmin likitancin ɗan adam, ilimin falsafa, da kuma ilimin koyar da tarbiyya. Shi ma mai fassarar Littafi Mai -Tsarki ne. Fassarar Buber da Rosenzweig na Nassosin Ibrananci babban adabi ne na adabin Jamus.

Buber ya zama mai sha'awar duniyar Yahudawa ta Gabashin Turai. Kodayake abokan aikinsa sun raina shtetl, Buber ya gano cewa a ƙarƙashin waɗannan ƙananan al'ummomin, akwai duniyar zamantakewa mai zurfi da ƙarfi, duniyar da ke da matukar rikitarwa da haɓaka zamantakewa. Shahararren aikin adabinsa "Tatsuniyoyin Chassidic" ba wai kawai ya ba da daraja ga al'umma da aka raina ba, amma ya nuna cewa zurfin tunani na falsafa ba shine kawai lardin malaman yamma ba.

Buber ya kawo rayuwa ba kawai ɓangaren rayuwar shtetl ba har ma da dangantakar ruhaniya da Allah.

Buber “yana gayyatar” mu cikin rayuwar shtetl. Ya nuna cewa waɗannan ƙauyuka, ko da yake matalauta ne a cikin kayan duniya, sun kasance masu wadata da al'adu da ruhaniya.

Karatun ayyukan Buber mun zo mu koyi cewa mutanen da aka tilasta musu zama a cikin talauci da son zuciya sun iya canza fata zuwa ayyuka da ƙiyayya cikin ƙauna.

Za mu iya karanta “Tatsuniyoyin Chasidic” na Buber akan matakai biyu. A matakin farko, mun karanta tatsuniya game da mutanen da ke ƙoƙarin bunƙasa a cikin duniyar maƙiya, duniyar da tsira kawai ke kusa da mu'ujiza. A mataki mafi zurfi, muna samun falsafancin zamani wanda ke koya wa mai karatu jin daɗin rayuwa a tsakiyar yanke ƙauna.

A cikin ayyukan Buber, mun ga yadda mazaunan shtetl suka zama abokan Allah. Ba kamar “ƙwararrun” Turawan Yammacin Turai ba, waɗannan mazaunan “marasa ƙwarewa” ba su yi ƙoƙarin ayyana Allah ba. Sun rayu cikin dangantaka mai ci gaba da Allah. Mutanen shtetl sun yi amfani da kalmomi kaɗan. Ko da lokacin da kuke magana da Allah, galibi ana nuna motsin rai ta hanyar waƙar “neegoon”: waƙar da ba ta da kalmomi, wanda waƙar ta ta kawo su kusa da Allah.

Martin Buber ya tattara waɗannan tatsuniyoyin, ya nannade su a cikin fakitin kayan fasaha, kuma ya ba su darajar girmamawa a duk faɗin Yammacin duniya.

Littattafansa: "Hundert chassidische Geschichten" (Tatsuniyoyin Chassidic ɗari) da "Die Erzählungen der Chassidim" (Labarun Hasidic) sun nuna zurfin ruhu a tsakiyar talauci kuma sun gabatar wa duniya sabbin fahimta cikin hikima.

Ya yi nasarar haɗa bangaskiya mai ƙarfi na Yahudawa ta Gabashin Turai tare da busasshiyar ilimin ilimi na Yammacin Yammacin duniya, ya bar mana tambayar ita ce ƙungiyar ta fi kyau?

Buber ya nuna yadda masana ilimin yamma suka rarrabu da gaskiya, yayin da a cikin duniyar shtetl akwai neman cikakkiyar. Buber kuma ya fallasa falsafar Yammacin Turai ga manufar tzimtzum: ra'ayin ƙuntataccen allahntaka don haka ya ba da damar tsarkake talakawa. Karatun Buber, mun ga yadda mazaunan shtetls suka sami Allah ko'ina saboda Allah ya yi sarari inda mutane za su yi girma.

Buber bai tsaya da bayyana alaƙar da ke tsakanin ɗan adam da Allah ba (bein adam la-makom) amma kuma yana shiga cikin duniyar alakar ɗan adam (bein adam l'chaero).

Ga Buber kawai ma'amala tsakanin mutane ce ke haifar da bargon soyayya da kariya daga sanyin ƙiyayya da son zuciya. A cikin duniyar Buber, babu rarrabuwa tsakanin siyasa da ruhaniya, tsakanin aiki da addu’a, tsakanin ayyukan gida da mai girma. Ba a samun gaskiya a cikin abin da ba a sani ba, a cikin abin ban mamaki amma a bayyane, cikin mu'amala tsakanin mutum da rayuwa. Buber ya nuna yadda waɗannan alaƙar ke canza duniyar da ba ta da zuciya kuma ta hanyar hadisai suka sa rayuwa ta cancanci rayuwa.

A cikin hoton Buber na shtetl, babu wanda ke da kyau ko mugunta. Maimakon haka, akwai neman teshuvah, juyawa da komawa ga Allah tare da jimlar mutum.

Buber ya gabatar mana, kamar yadda Sholom Aleichem wanda na rubuta game da shi a watan da ya gabata, talakawa waɗanda ke samun Allah a cikin abubuwan yau da kullun na rayuwa. Halin Buber ba ya wuce mutum, amma yana rayuwarsu ta hanyar da ta zama ɗan adam suna haɗuwa da Allah. Buber ya misalta wannan aikin ta hanyar mutuncin tzadik (shugaban ruhaniya da na jama'a). Tzadik ya girmama kowace rana, ya mai da shi mai tsarki, ta hanyar mu'ujiza ta tsarkake al'amuran rayuwa masu gajiya da ban sha'awa.

Rubutun Buber sun kwatanta duniyar da babu.

An lalata mu da ƙiyayyar Nazi Turai da tekun son zuciya, babu abin da ya rage mana sai labari, amma waɗannan tatsuniyoyi ne waɗanda ke sa rayuwa ta cancanci rayuwa, kuma hakan ya samo asali ne daga masanin falsafa ɗan ƙasar Jamus mai hankali wanda ya gudu daga Jamus ya sake kafa rayuwarsa. a cikin Isra'ila, cewa mu ma za mu iya tsarkake talakawa kuma mu sami Allah a cikin duk abin da muke yi.

Peter Tarlow is rabbi Emeritus a Texas A&M Hillel Foundation a Kwalejin Kwaleji. Shi limamin coci ne na Sashen 'Yan Sanda na Kwalejin kuma yana koyarwa a Kwalejin Medicine ta Texas A&M.

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Game da marubucin

Dokta Peter E. Tarlow

Dokta Peter E. Tarlow sanannen mai magana ne a duniya kuma masani ne kan tasirin aikata laifuka da ta'addanci a kan masana'antar yawon shakatawa, taron da kula da haɗarin yawon buɗe ido, da yawon buɗe ido da ci gaban tattalin arziki. Tun daga 1990, Tarlow yana taimaka wa al'ummomin yawon bude ido da batutuwa irin su aminci da tsaro, ci gaban tattalin arziki, tallan kirkire-kirkire, da tunanin kirkira.

A matsayin sanannen marubuci a fagen tsaro na yawon shakatawa, Tarlow marubuci ne mai ba da gudummawa ga littattafai da yawa kan tsaron yawon shakatawa, kuma yana buga ɗimbin ilimi da amfani da labaran bincike game da batutuwan tsaro ciki har da labaran da aka buga a The Futurist, Jaridar Binciken Balaguro da Gudanar da Tsaro. Labarai iri -iri na ƙwararru da ilimi na Tarlow sun haɗa da labarai kan batutuwa kamar: “yawon shakatawa mai duhu”, tunanin ta’addanci, da bunƙasa tattalin arziƙi ta hanyar yawon buɗe ido, addini da ta’addanci da yawon buɗe ido. Tarlow kuma ya rubuta kuma ya buga shahararren labaran yawon shakatawa na kan layi Tidbits ya karanta ta dubunnan masu yawon buɗe ido da ƙwararrun masu balaguro a duniya a cikin bugu na Ingilishi, Spanish, da Fotigal.

https://safertourism.com/

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